Author's Perspective: When I was originally diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes in the hospital, all I heard every day was that I would have to be on insulin for the rest of my life. I was also told that it was not possible to reverse my diabetes.

Needless to say, during my research, I was surprised to discover so many clinical references on PubMed and other medical databases about the feasibility of reversing Type 2 diabetes!

The following is a list of some the many clinical references, abstracts and resources from PubMed and other medical websites that I found; and, used to help write my book. I used some of these clinical references to substantiate many of my nutritional recommendations that support reversing Type 2 diabetes and preventing the onset of diabetic complications. 

Although my focus is primarily on Type 2 diabetes, I included clinical references and abstracts about Type 1 diabetes because there is a lot that parents of Type 1 children need to know about nutrition and how it can affect their children -- positively and negatively.

Note: Today, there are more doctors and additional more recent  clinical studies and reports in PubMed and other medical resources that support the claim that Type 2 Diabetes is reversible.

Clinical References about Reversing Type 2 Diabetes

Acetyl-L-carnitine, L-carnitine

  1. Double-blind parallel design pilot study of acetyl l-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Arch Neurol 1992; 49: 1137 -41. Sano M, Bell K, Cote L, et al.
  2. Clinical pharmacodynamics of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Parkinson's disease. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1990; 10.139-43. Puca FM, Genco S, Specchio LM, et al.
  3. Acetyl-L-carnitine for symptomatic diabetic neuropathy [letter]. Diabetologia 1995; 38: 123. Quatraro A, Roca P, Donzella C, Acampora R, Marfella R, Giugliano D
  4. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of painful peripheral neuropathies in HIV+ patients. J Peripher Nerv Syst 1997; 2:250-2. Scarpini E, Sacilotto G, Baron P, Cusini M, Scarlato G.
  5. L-carnitine improves glucose disposal in type 2 diabetic patients. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 1999; 18(1): 77-82. Mingrone, G. et al.

Alpha Lipoic Acid

  1. Alpha lipoic acid treatment decreases serum lactate and pyruvate concentrations and improves glucose effectiveness in lean and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:280–7. Konrad T, Vicini P, Kusterer K, et al.
  2. Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic peripheral and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. Diabetes 46 Suppl 2: S62-6. Ziegler, D. and F. A. Gries (1997).
  3. Effects of treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid on cardiac autonomic neuropathy in NIDDM patients. A 4-month randomized controlled multicenter trial (DEKAN Study). Diabetes Care 1997;20:369-73. Ziegler D, Schatz H, Conrad F, et al.
  4. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on microcirculation in patients with peripheral diabetic neuropathy. These results demonstrate that in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy ALA improves microcirculation. Haak E,. University Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany.
  5. The radical scavenger a-lipoic acid enhances insulin sensitivity in patients with NIDDM; a placebo-controlled trial. Presented at Oxidants and Antioxidants in Biology, Santa Barbara, California, February 27-March 1, 1997. Jacob, S. et al.
  6. Lipoic acid decreases lipid peroxidation and protein glycosylation and increases (Na+ + K+)- and Ca++-ATPase activities in high glucose-treated red blood cells (RBC). Free Radical Biol. Med. 1998; 25: S94 (Abstr. 268); see also Free Radical Biol. Med. 2000; 29(11): 1122-8. Jain, S.K., Lim, G.
  7. Antioxidant properties of lipoic acid and its therapeutic effects in prevention of diabetes complications and cataracts. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1994; 738: 257-64. Packer, L. 

Arginine, Pycognenol for Heart Health, HBP, ED

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  3. Furuno T, Mullen MJ Thorne SA Thomson H Donald AE Powe A et al. Intravenous L-arginine restores endothelial function in healthy young smokers (abstract). Circulation 1996;94:3052.
  4. Maxwell AJ, Anderson B. A nutritional product designed to enhance nitric oxide activity restores endothelium-dependent function in hypercholesterolemia (abstract). J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33:282A.
  5. Sofiabadi, M. and Rajaje, F. The Histological Effects of L-arginine on Ventricular Myocardium in Iron Treated Male Rats. Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal 2010;4:10-14.
  6. Tangphao, O., Chalon, S., Moreno, H., Jr., Hoffman, B. B., and Blaschke, T. F. Pharmacokinetics of L-arginine during chronic administration to patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 1999;96:199-207. View abstract.
  7. Pezza, V., Bernardini, F., Pezza, E., Pezza, B., and Curione, M. Study of supplemental oral l-arginine in hypertensives treated with enalapril + hydrochlorothiazide. Am.J Hypertens. 1998;11:1267-1270.
  8. Moody JA, Vernet D, Laidlaw S, Rajfer J, Gonzalez-Cadavid NF (September 1997). "Effects of long-term oral administration of L-arginine on the rat erectile response". The Journal of Urology 158 (3 Pt 1): 942–7. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(01)64368-4. PMID 9258123
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  15. Jia Z, Zhang X, Kang S, Wu Y (2013). "Association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis". Endocrine Journal. 60 (7): 893–901. doi:10.1507/endocrj.ej12-0463. PMID 23563728
  16. Shoukry A, Shalaby SM, Abdelazim S, Abdelazim M, Ramadan A, Ismail MI, Fouad M (Jun 2012). "Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms and the risk of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers. 16 (6): 574–9. doi:10.1089/gtmb.2011.0218. PMID 22313046.
  17. Taverna MJ, Elgrably F, Selmi H, Selam JL, Slama G (Aug 2005). "The T-786C and C774T endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms independently affect the onset pattern of severe diabetic retinopathy". Nitric Oxide. 13 (1): 88–92. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2005.04.004. PMID 15890549
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  19. Klotz T, Mathers MJ, Braun M, Bloch W, Engelmann U. Effectiveness of oral L-arginine in first-line treatment of erectile dysfunction in a controlled crossover study. Urol Int 1999; 63: 220–223. 
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  13. Diabetic cardiomyopathy and carnitine deficiency. J. Diabetes Complications 1999; 13: 86-90. Malone, J.I. et al.
  14. C-reactive protein, dietary n-3 fatty acids, and the extent of coronary artery disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 2001 Nov 15: 88(10): 1139-42. Madsen, T. et al.
  15. Prophylactic aspirin and risk of peptic ulcer bleeding. Conclusion: No conventionally used prophylactic aspirin regimen seems free of the risk of peptic ulcer complications. BMJ, Apr 1995; 310: 827 - 830. John Weil, Duncan Colin-Jones, Michael Langman, David Lawson, Richard Logan, Michael Murphy, Michael Rawlins, Martin Vessey, and Paul Wainwright.
  16. A randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate in addition to usual care, for rate control in atrial fibrillation. Davey, MJ and Teubner, D. Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 45, April 2005, pp. 347-53
  17. Oral magnesium therapy improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. Shechter, Michael, et al. Circulation, Vol. 102, November 7, 2000, pp. 2353-58
  18. Researchers at the University Medical Center in Tucson have confirmed that magnesium deficiency is closely associated with cardiovascular disease. American Heart Journal, October 1992, pp. 1113-18
  19. Low levels of serum ionized magnesium are found in patients early after stroke which result in rapid elevation in cytosolic free calcium and spasm in cerebral vascular muscle cells. Source: Altura BT et al. Neurosci Lett, vol. 230, no. 1, pp. 37-40, 1997.
  20. The effects of high oral magnesium supplementation on blood pressure, serum lipids and related variables in apparently healthy Japanese subjects. Source: Itoh, K., Kawasaki, T., Nakamura, M. British Journal of Nutrition, 1997;78(5):737-50.
  21. China Study supports a plant-based diet that can prevent heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. The China Study:The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-term Health (2005).   Dr. T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D., Nutritional Biochemistry Cornell University.
  22. Note: The China Study was the culmination of a 20-year partnership of Cornell University, Oxford University and the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine.
  23. Dietary Nitrate from Beetroot Juice Powder Provides Sustained Blood Pressure Lowering in Hypertensive Patients
    A Randomized, Phase 2, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study November 1, 2014
    William Harvey Research Institute, NIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit at Barts, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London;
    Prof Amrita Ahluwalia, William Harvey Research Institute

Cholesterol (Plant Sterols, Policosanol, Resveratrol), Homocysteine

  1. High cholesterol may protect against infections and atherosclerosis. Quart J Med 2003;96:927-934.Ravnskov U.
  2. Inhibition of human LDL oxidation by resveratrol. Lancet. 1993;341:1103–1104. Frankel EN, Waterhouse AL, Kinsella JE.
  3. Cholesterol-lowering effect of stanol ester in a US population of mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 1999;74(12):1198-1206. Nguyen TT, Dale LC, von Bergmann K, Croghan IT.
  4. Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol with that of fluvastatin in older hypercholesterolemic women. Policosanol significantly lowered low density lipoprotein cholesterol (29.2%), total cholesterol (19.3%), triglycerides (7%), and significantly increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (19.8%). Clin Drug Invest 21(2):103-113, 2001. J.C. Fernández, R. Más, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana City, Cuba; G. Castaño, Medical Surgical Research Center, Havana City, Cuba; R. Menéndez, A.M. Amor, R.M. González, E. Alvarez, National Center for Scientific Research, Havana City, Cuba
  5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. FDA authorizes new coronary heart disease health claim for plant sterol and plant stanol esters. Posted September 5, 2000. Available at:  U.S. Food & Drug Administration.
  6. Incremental reduction of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with the addition of plant stanol ester-containing spread to statin therapy. American Journal of Cardiology. 2000;86(1):46-52. Blair SN, Capuzzi DM, Gottlieb SO, Nguyen TT, Morgan JM, Cater NB.
  7. Plant stanol ester: review of cholesterol-lowering efficacy and implications for coronary heart disease risk reduction. Preventive Cardiology. 2000;3(3):121-130. Cater NB.
  8. Effect of carnitine on blood lipid pattern in diabetic patients. L-carnitine (1 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight), both cholesterol  and triglycerides dropped 25-39% in just ten days. Nutr Rep Int 1984;29:1071-9. Abdel-Aziz MT, Abdou MS, Soliman K, et al.

Cholesterol (Statin drugs)

  1. The myotoxicity of statins. Adverse reactions involving skeletal muscle are the most common (reported incidence 1-7%). The recent withdrawal of cerivastatin because of deaths from rhabdomyolysis, of which 25% were related to gemfibrozil-cerivastatin combination therapy, has focused attention on myotoxicity associated with statins and in particular with statin-fibrate combinations. Cerivastatin was associated with a 10-fold higher incidence of myotoxicity than any other statin, suggesting that there may be differences in myotoxic potential between agents. Potential differences in myotoxicity between agents may relate to the physicochemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of individual drugs. Evans M, Rees A., Dept. of Diabetes and Endocrinology, University Hospital of Wales, UK.
  2. Myotoxicity and rhabdomyolysis due to statins. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare but potentially fatal complication associated with the use of cholesterol synthesis inhibitors (statins). Myopathy is present when plasma activity levels of creatinine kinase are raised to in excess of 10 times the upper limit of the normal value. Muscular complaints which may be indicative of myotoxicity and subsequent myopathy are present in 1-7% of statin users. Rhabdomyolysis was clearly more prevalent under cerivastatin users than the users of other statins and was therefore recently withdrawn from the market. Statins should be withdrawn immediately if myopathy is suspected. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2001 Dec 8;145(49):2371-6. Banga JD., Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht,
  3. Rhabdomyolysis associated with cerivastatin and cyclosporine combination therapy. Med Clin (Barc). 2002 May 18;118(18):716-7. Spanish. Nicolas De Prado I, Miras Lopez M, Moran Sanchez S, Mercader Martinez J.
  4. Statins have many benefits. Like all medications, statins have potential side effects. The most common side effects are: Nausea, Diarrhea, Constipation, Muscle aching. In addition, two potentially serious side effects are elevated liver enzymes and statin myopathy. Mayo Clinic.
  5. Biochemical and clinical consequences of inhibiting coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis by lipid-lowering HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins): a critical overview. Adv Ther. Jul/Aug 1998;15(4):218-228. Bliznakov EG, Wilkins DJ.

Chromium, Brewer’s yeast

  1. The case for supplemental chromium and a survey of clinical studies with chromium picolinate. J Appl Nutr 1991;43:59-66. McCarty MF.
  2. The effects of chromium supplementation on serum glucose and lipids in non-insulin-dependent diabetics. 1992; Metabolism 41(7): 768-71. Abram, A., B. Brooks, et al.
  3. Chromium picolinate increases membrane fluidity and rate of insulin internalization. 1992; J Inorg Biochem 46(4): 243-50. Evans, G. and T. Bowman.
  4. Role of chromium in barley in modulating the symptoms of diabetes. 1991; Ann Nutr Metab 35(2): 65-70. Mahdi, G. and D. Naismith.
  5. Effect of chromium chloride supplementation on glucose tolerance and serum lipids including high-density lipoprotein of adult men. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:2670–8. Riales R, Albrink MJ.
  6. Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. J Amer Coll Nutr. 1998;17:548-555, Anderson RA.
  7. Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes Metab. 2000; 26:22-27, Anderson RA.
  8. Elevated intake of supplemental chromium improved glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46:1786-1791, Anderson RA.
  9. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects. Diabetes 1980;29:919-25. Offenbacher EG, Pi-Sunyer FX.
  10. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1449-52. Lee NA, Reasner CA.
  11. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1997; 46: 1786-91. Anderson, R.A. et al.


  1. Young RW, Beregi JS Jr. Use of chlorophyllin in the care of geriatric patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1980 Jan;28(1):46-7.
  2. Esten, Mabel M. and Dannin, Albert G. (1950) “Chlorophyll therapy and its relation to pathogenic bacteria.” Butler University Botanical Studies : Vol. 9, Article 21.
  3. Weir D, Farley KL. Relative delivery efficiency and convenience of spray and ointment formulations of papain/urea/chlorophyllin enzymatic wound therapies. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2006 Sep-Oct;33(5):482-90.
  4. Jubert C, Mata J, Bench G, Dashwood R, Pereira C, Tracewell W, Turteltaub K, Williams D, Bailey G. Effects of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin on low-dose aflatoxin B(1) pharmacokinetics in human volunteers. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009 Dec;2(12):1015-22. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-09-0099. Epub 2009 Dec 1.
  5. Shaughnessy DT, Gangarosa LM, Schliebe B, Umbach DM, Xu Z, MacIntosh B, Knize MG, Matthews PP, Swank AE, Sandler RS, DeMarini DM, Taylor JA. Inhibition of fried meat-induced colorectal DNA damage and altered systemic genotoxicity in humans by crucifera, chlorophyllin, and yogurt. PLoS One. 2011 Apr 25;6(4):e18707. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018707.
  6. Zhang YL, Guan L, Zhou PH, Mao LJ, Zhao ZM, Li SQ, Xu XX, Cong CC, Zhu MX, Zhao JY. [The protective effect of chlorophyllin against oxidative damage and its mechanism]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2012 Jun;51(6):466-70.
  7. El-Sayed WM, Hussin WA, Mahmoud AA, AlFredan MA. The Conyza triloba extracts with high chlorophyll content and free radical scavenging activity had anticancer activity in cell lines. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:945638. doi: 10.1155/2013/945638. Epub 2013 May 23.
  8. Balder HF, Vogel J, Jansen MC, Weijenberg MP, van den Brandt PA, Westenbrink S, van der Meer R, Goldbohm RA. Heme and chlorophyll intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the Netherlands cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Apr;15(4):717-25.
  9. Dingley KH, Ubick EA, Chiarappa-Zucca ML, Nowell S, Abel S, Ebeler SE, Mitchell AE, Burns SA, Steinberg FM, Clifford AJ. Effect of dietary constituents with chemopreventive potential on adduct formation of a low dose of the heterocyclic amines PhIP and IQ and phase II hepatic enzymes. Nutr Cancer. 2003;46(2):212-21.
  10. Lilian Eiko MAEKAWA, LAMPING Roberta, MARCACCI Sidnei, Marcos Yasunori MAEKAWA, Maria Renata Giazzi NASSRI, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito. Antimicrobial activity of chlorophyll-based solution on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis. Revista Sul-brasiliera de Odontologia 01/2007.
  11. Subramoniam A, Asha VV, Nair SA, Sasidharan SP, Sureshkumar PK, Rajendran KN, Karunagaran D, Ramalingam K. Chlorophyll revisited: anti-inflammatory activities of chlorophyll a and inhibition of expression of TNF-? gene by the same. Inflammation. 2012 Jun;35(3):959-66. doi: 10.1007/s10753-011-9399-0.
  12. Cancer prevention by chlorophylls. (2006). Retrieved from
  13. Chimploy, K., Diaz, G. D., Li, Q., Carter, O., Dashwood, W. M., Mathews, C. K. … Dashwood, R. H. (2009, November). E2F4 and ribonucleotide reductase mediate S-phase arrest in colon cancers treated with chlorophyllin. International Journal of Cancer, 125(9), 2096-2094. Retrieved from
  14. Chlorophyll and chlorophyllin. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  15. Liquid chlorophyll benefits. (2014, April 11). Retrieved from
  16. Schluter, A., Yubero, P., Iglesias, R., Giralt, M., & Villarroya, F. (2002, September). The chlorophyll-derived metabolite phytanic acid induces white adipocyte differentiation. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 26(9), 1277-1280. Retrieved from


  1. Antioxidative effect of dietary coenzyme Q10 in human blood plasma. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1994;64:311–5. Weber C, Jakobsen TS, Mortensen SA, et al.
  2. Inhibition of LDL oxidation by ubiquinol-10. A protective mechanism for coenzyme Q in atherogenesis? Mol Aspects Med 1997;18:S85–103. Thomas SR, Neuzil J, Stocker R.
  3. Evidence of plasma CoQ10-lowering effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. 1993; J Clin Pharmacol 33(3): 226-9. Ghirlanda, G., A. Oradei, et al.
  4. Effect of coenzyme Q7 treatment on blood sugar and ketone bodies of diabetics. Blood sugar levels fell substantially in 31% of diabetics after supplementing with 120 mg per day of CoQ7, a substance similar to CoQ10. J Vitaminol (Kyoto) 1966;12:293-8. Shigeta Y, Izumi K, Abe H.
  5. Impact of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10) treatment on glycemic control, insulin requirement and well-being in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Supplementation of 100 mg CoQ10 per day for three months did not improve glucose control or reduce the need for insulin. Diabet Med 1999;16:312-8.Henriksen JE, Bruun Andersen C, Hother-Nielsen O, et al.
  6. Can correction of sub-optimal coenzyme Q status improve beta-cell function in type II diabetics- Med. Hypotheses 1999 May; 52(5): 397-400. McCarty, M.F.
  7. Toward Practical Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes. Other nutrients that might prove to aid diabetic glycemic control, and thus have potential for prevention, include coenzyme Q and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Supplementation with these nutrients may prove to be a practical strategy for diabetes prevention. Med Hypotheses 2000 (May); 54 (5): 786–793. McCarty MF, Pantox Laboratories, San Diego, USA.
  8. Coenzyme Q10 Administration and its Potential for Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases. Oral administration of CoQ10 significantly decreased elevated lactate levels in patients with Huntington's disease. These studies therefore raise the prospect that administration of CoQ10 may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Biofactors 1999; 9 (2–4): 261–266. Beal MF, Neurochemistry Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.
  9. A Possible Role of Coenzyme Q10 in the Etiology and Treatment of Parkinson's Disease. Data suggests that CoQ10 may play a role in cellular dysfunction found in PD and may be a potential protective agent for parkinsonian patients. Biofactors 1999; 9 (2–4): 267–272. Shults CW, Haas RH, Beal MF, Dept. of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, CA.

Diabetes Type 1

  1. Possible regeneration of the Islets of Langerhans in Streptozotocin-diabetic rats given Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract, J. Ethnopharmacology 30:265-279 (1990). Shanmugasundaram, E.R.B. et al (Dr Ambedkar Institute of Diabetes, Kilpauk Medical College Hospital, Madras, India).
  2. Effect of nicotinamide therapy upon B-cell function in newly diagnosed type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetics. Diabetologia 1989;32:160–2. Mendola G, Casamitjana R, Gomis R.
  3. Relationship between cows’ milk consumption and incidence of IDDM in childhood. Diabetes Care 1991;14:1081–3. Dahl-Jorgensen K, Joner G, Hanssen KF.
  4. Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and cow milk: casein variant consumption. Diabetologia 1999;42:292-6. Elliott RB, Harris DP, Hill JP, et al.
  5. A bovine albumin peptide as a possible trigger of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Children antibodies cross-react with and damage the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. N Engl J Med 1992;327:302-7. Karajalainen J, Martin JM, Knip M, et al.
  6. Cow’s milk exposure and type I diabetes mellitus. Preliminary studies have found that early introduction of cows’ milk formula feeding increases the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1994;17:13-9. Gerstein H.
  7. Biotin status and plasma glucose in diabetics. Type 1 diabetics were given 16 mg of biotin per day for one week, their fasting glucose levels dropped by 50%. Ann NY Acad Sci 1985;447:389-92. Coggeshall JC, Heggers JP, Robson MC, Baker H.
  8. A population based strategy to prevent insulin-dependent diabetes using nicotinamide. Healthy children at high risk for type 1 diabetes (such as the healthy siblings of children with type 1 diabetes) may be protected from the disease by supplementing with niacinamide, but only under doctor supervision. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 1996;9:501-9, Elliott RB, Picher CC, Fergusson DM, Stewart AW.
  9. The Deutsche Nicotinamide Intervention Study. An attempt to prevent type 1 diabetes. Supplementing with niacinamide may not help prevent type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 1998;47:980-4. Lampeter EF, Klinghammer A, Scherbaum WA, et al.
  10. Insulin Cells Persist in Long-standing Diabetes. Study showed that the majority (88 percent) with type 1 diabetes for up to 60 years still had detectable insulin-producing beta cells in their pancreas. According to Dr. P. C. Butler: Type 1 could, theoretically, be cured by stopping the beta cells from being destroyed. Therefore, type 1 diabetes may be reversible by targeted inhibition of beta cell destruction. Additional studies being funded by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. Reuters Health, June 2005; Diabetes Today; Dr. P. C. Butler, University of California, Los Angeles, CA.
  11. China Study supports a plant-based diet that can prevent heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. The China Study:The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-term Health (2005).   Dr. T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D., Nutritional Biochemistry Cornell University.
  12. Note: The China Study was the culmination of a 20-year partnership of Cornell University, Oxford University and the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine.
  13. Vaarala O, Knip M, Paronen J, Hamalainen AM, Muona P, Vaatainen M, Ilonen J, Simell O, Akerblom HK. Cow's milk formula feeding induces primary immunization to insulin in infants at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 1999 Jul;48(7):1389-94.

Nutrients That May Regenerate Pancreatic Beta Cells

  1. Arginine: a 2007 study found that the amino acid L-arginine is capable of stimulating the genesis of beta cells in an animal model of alloxan-induced diabetes.[2]
  2. Avocado: A 2007 study found that avocado seed extract reduced blood sugar in diabetic rats. Researchers observed a restorative and protective effect on pancreatic islet cells in the treated group.[3]
  3. Berberine: A 2009 study found that this plant compound, commonly found in herbs such as barberry and goldenseal, induces beta cell regeneration in diabetic rats, which lends explanation for why it has been used for 1400 years in China to treat diabetes.[4]
  4. Chard: A 2000 study found that chard extract given to diabetic rats stimulates the recovery of injured beta cells.[5]
  5. Corn Silk: A 2009 study found that corn silk reduces blood sugar and stimulates beta cell regeneration in type 1 diabetic rats.[6]
  6. Curcumin (from Turmeric): A 2010 study found that curcumin stimulates beta cell regeneration in type 1 diabetic rats.[7] Additionally, a 2008 study found that curcumin preserves pancreatic islet cell survival and transplantation efficiency.[8]
  7. Genistein (from soy, red clover): A 2010 study found that genistein induces pancreatic beta-cell proliferation through activation of multiple signaling pathways and prevents insulin-deficient diabetes in mice.[9]
  8. Honey: A 2010 human study found that long-term consumption of honey might have positive effects on the metabolic derangements of type 1 diabetes, including possible beta cell regeneration as indicating by increases in fasting C-peptide levels.[10]
  9. Nigella Sativa (black seed): A 2003 animal study found that black seed consumption lead to partial regeneration/proliferation of the beta-cells.[11] A 2010 human study also found that the consumption of one gram of black seed a day for up to 12 weeks had a broad range of beneficial effects in diabetics, including increasing beta cell function.[12]
  10. Stevia: A 2011 human study found that stevia has anti-diabetic properties, including revitalizing damaged beta cells, and compares favorably with the drug glibenclamide but without the adverse effects.[13] 

[1] Menakshi Bhat Dusane, Bimba N Joshi. Beneficial effect of flax seeds in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice: isolation of active fraction having islet regenerative and glucosidase inhibitory properties. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013 May ;91(5):325-31. Epub 2013 Jan 16. PMID:23656171

[2] Ana Vasilijevic, Biljana Buzadzic, Aleksandra Korac, Vesna Petrovic, Aleksandra Jankovic, Bato Korac.Beneficial effects of L-arginine nitric oxide-producing pathway in rats treated with alloxan. J Physiol. 2007 Nov 1;584(Pt 3):921-33. Epub 2007 Aug 23. PMID: 17717015

[3] Do Edem, Is Ekanem, Pe Ebong. Effect of aqueous extracts of alligator pear seed (Persea americana mill) on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Transplantation. 2007 Jul 27;84(2):173-9. PMID: 19553173

[4] Jiyin Zhou, Shiwen Zhou, Jianlin Tang, Kebin Zhang, Lixia Guang, Yongping Huang, Ying Xu, Yi Ying, Le Zhang, Dandan Li. Protective effect of berberine on beta cells in streptozotocin- and high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Mar 15;606(1-3):262-8. Epub 2009 Jan 19. PMID: 19374872

[5] S Bolkent, R Yanardağ, A Tabakoğlu-Oğuz, O Ozsoy-Saçan. Effects of chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. Cicla) extract on pancreatic B cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical study. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov;73(1-2):251-9. PMID: 11025163

[6] Jianyou Guo, Tongjun Liu, Linna Han, Yongmei Liu. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Nutr Metab (Lond).2009 Nov 23;6:47. PMID: 19930631

[7] Malee Chanpoo, Hattaya Petchpiboonthai, Busaba Panyarachun, Vipavee Anupunpisit. Effect of curcumin in the amelioration of pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010 Nov;93 Suppl 6:S152-9. PMID: 21280528

[8] Meghana Kanitkar, Ramesh R Bhonde. Curcumin treatment enhances islet recovery by induction of heat shock response proteins, Hsp70 and heme oxygenase-1, during cryopreservation.Life Sci. 2008 Jan 16;82(3-4):182-9. Epub 2007 Nov 21. PMID: 18093618

[9] Zhuo Fu, Wen Zhang, Wei Zhen, Hazel Lum, Jerry Nadler, Josep Bassaganya-Riera, Zhenquan Jia, Yanwen Wang, Hara Misra, Dongmin Liu. Genistein induces pancreatic beta-cell proliferation through activation of multiple signaling pathways and prevents insulin-deficient diabetes in mice. Endocrinology. 2010 Jul ;151(7):3026-37. Epub 2010 May 19. PMID: 20484465

[10] Mamdouh M Abdulrhman, Mohamed H El-Hefnawy, Rasha H Aly, Rania H Shatla, Rasha M Mamdouh, Doaa M Mahmoud, Waheed S Mohamed. Metabolic Effects of Honey in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Crossover Pilot Study. J Med Food. 2012 Dec 20. Epub 2012 Dec 20. PMID:23256446

[11] Mehmet Kanter, Ismail Meral, Zabit Yener, Hanefi Ozbek, Halit Demir. Partial regeneration/proliferation of the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans by Nigella sativa L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2003 Dec;201(4):213-9. PMID:14690013

[12] Abdullah O Bamosa, Huda Kaatabi, Fatma M Lebdaa, Abdul-Muhssen Al Elq, Ali Al-Sultanb. Effect of Nigella sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010 Oct-Dec;54(4):344-54. PMID: 21675032

[13] Himanshu Misra, Manish Soni, Narendra Silawat, Darshana Mehta, B K Mehta, D C Jain. Antidiabetic activity of medium-polar extract from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. (Bertoni) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2011 Apr ;3(2):242-8. PMID: 21687353

Diabetes Type 2, Metabolic Syndrome X

  1. Science News: Reverse your diabetes: You can stay diabetes-free long-term Date: March 22, 2016
    Source: Newcastle University

    A new study from Newcastle University has shown that people who reverse their diabetes and then keep their weight down remain free of diabetes. In addition, the team found that even patients who have had Type 2 diabetes for up to 10 years can reverse their condition.

    The study, published in Diabetes Care, is the latest research from Professor Roy Taylor, Professor of Medicine and Metabolism at Newcastle University, who also works within Newcastle Hospitals.

  2. Very-Low-Calorie Diet and 6 Months of Weight Stability in Type 2 Diabetes: Pathophysiologic Changes in Responders and Nonresponders

    Sarah Steven, Kieren G. Hollingsworth, Ahmad Al-Mrabeh, Leah Avery,Benjamin Aribisala, Muriel Caslake, Roy Taylor

    Diabetes Care 2016 Mar; dc151942.
    CONCLUSIONS: A robust and sustainable weight loss program achieved continuing remission of diabetes for at least 6 months in the 40% who responded to a VLCD by achieving fasting plasma glucose of <7 mmol/L. T2DM is a potentially reversible condition.

  3. Maturity-onset diabetes mellitus--toward a physiological appropriate management. Therapy includes: GTF, to directly enhance the efficacy of insulin; weight loss, exercise, and fasting, to help reduce tissue resistance to insulin; mitochondrial "metavitamins", to optimize the oxidative disposal of excess substrate; a high-fiber, low-fat diet, which appears superior to traditional diabetic diets as a promoter of glucose tolerance. Following a prolonged fast, obese diabetics show substantial improvement in most parameters of insulin function--an effect which is to some degree independent of weight loss; long-term remission of diabetes may be possible if the benefits of therapeutic fasting are conserved by appropriate metabolic measures. Med Hypotheses. 1981 Oct;7(10):1265-85. Review. McCarty MF.
  4. Dietary factors determining diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. A 20-year follow-up of the Finnish and Dutch cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Eating carbohydrate-rich foods such as beans, peas, oats with low glycemic indices is associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1995;18:1104-12. Feskens EJ, Virtanen SM, Rasanen L, et al.
  5. Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Six-weeks study, 50 grams/day of fiber from high fiber foods (e.g. leafy green vegetables, granola, fruit, etc.): average glucose level 10% lower; insulin levels 12% lower;  significant reductions in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL (“bad”) cholesterol; slight decreases in glycosylated hemoglobin -- compared to  participants eating the ADA diet (24 grams/day). New Engl J Med 2000;342:1392-8. Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, et al.
  6. Diabetes mellitus -- a free radical-associated disease. 1993; Z Gesamte Inn Med 48(5): 223-32. Kahler, W., B. Kuklinski, et al.
  7. Comparison of effects of high and low carbohydrate diets on plasma lipoproteins and insulin sensitivity in patients with mild NIDDM. 1992; Diabetes 41(10): 1278-85. Garg, A., S. Grundy, et al.
  8. A high-monounsaturated fat/low-carbohydrate diet improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. 1992; Metabolism 41(12): 1373-8. Parillo, M., A. Rivellese, et al.
  9. Effect of high intakes of fruit and vegetables on redox status in type 2 onset diabetes: a pilot study. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004 Sep;74(5):313-20. PMID: 15628668. Giammarioli S, Filesi C, Vitale B, Cantagallo A, Dragoni F, Sanzini E.
  10. Effect of Vitamin C Supplementation on Blood Sugar and Antioxidative Status in Types II Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2003 Apr;33(2):170-8. Korean. PMID: 15314445. Park HS, Lee YM.
  11. Dietary antioxidant intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. This study supports the hypothesis that development of type 2 diabetes may be reduced by the intake of antioxidants in the diet. Montonen J, Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Reunanen A., National Public Health Institute, Dept. of Health & Functional Capacity, Helsinki, Finland.
  12. Experiences with a diet-training program in patients with obesity associated diseases including follow-up. Z Gesamte Inn Med. 1989 Sep 1;44(17):509-12. Hantzschel U, Kraus E, Dempe A.
  13. European stroke prevention study: effectiveness of antiplatelet therapy in diabetic patients. 1992; Stroke 23(6): 851-4. Sivenius, J., M. Laakso, et al.
  14. Weight gain during insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004 Sep;65 Suppl 1:S23-7. PMID: 15315867. Heller S., UK.
  15. AGEs and their interaction with AGE-receptors in vascular disease and diabetes mellitus. I. The AGE concept. Cardiovascular Research. 1998; 37(3):586-600. Bierhaus A, Hofmann MA, Ziegler R, et al.
  16. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. Diabet Med. 2003 Jun;20(6):425-36. Mackie AD, Thornton SJ, Edenborough FP., Diabetes and Endocrine Centre and Adult Cystic Fibrosis Unit, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield, UK.
  17. Does a vegetarian diet reduce the occurrence of diabetes? Vegetarians have a low risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Publ Health 1985;75:507-12. Snowdon DA, Phillips RL.
  18. Insulin sensitivity and abdominal obesity in African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white men and women. Excess abdominal weight makes the body less sensitive to insulin. Diabetes 1996;45:1547-55. Karter AJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Selby JV, et al.
  19. Intra-abdominal fat is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity in healthy young men. Metabolism 1991;40:600-3. Park KS, Hree BD, Lee K-U, et al.
  20. Weight loss in obese subjects prevents the progression of impaired glucose tolerance to type II diabetes. Diabetes Care 1994;17:372. Long SD, Swanson MS, O’Brien K, et al.
  21. Caloric restriction per se is a significant factor in improvements in glycemic control and insulin sensitivity during weight loss in obese NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1994;17:30. Wing RR, Marcuse MD, Blair EH, et al.
  22. Tobacco and end stage diabetic nephropathy. People with diabetes who smoke are at higher risk for kidney damage. BMJ 1987;295:581-2. Stegmayr B, Lithner F.
  23. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus mortality-the risk of cigarette smoking. People with diabetes who smoke are at higher risk for heart disease. Circulation 1990;82:37-43. Scala C, LaPorte RE, Dorman JS, et al.
  24. Therapeutic evaluation of the effect of biotin on hyperglycemia in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Fasting glucose levels dropped using 9 mg per day for two months in type 2 diabetics. J Clin Biochem Nutr 1993;14:211-8. Maebashi M, Makino Y, Furukawa Y, et al.
  25. Body composition, visceral fat, leptin, and insulin resistance in Asian Indian men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab84 :137 –144,1999. Banerji MA, Faridi N, Atluri R, Chaiken RL Lebovitz HE.
  26. Leptin secretion from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in women. Diabetes47 :913 –917,1998. Van Harmelen V, Raynisdottir S, Eriksson P, Thörne A, Hoffstedt J, Lönnqvist F, Arner P.
  27. C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 2001 Jul 18; 286(3): 327-34. Pradhan, A. et al.
  28. Advanced glycation end products: a nephrologist's perspective. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2000 Mar; 35(3): 365-80. Raj, D.S. et al.
  29. Zinc and insulin sensitivity. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1992; 32: 305-10. Faure, P. et al.
  30. Caffeine: a cause of insulin resistance- Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 399-400. Biaggioni, I., Davis, S.N.
  31. Caffeine can decrease insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 364-9. Keijzers, G. et al.
  32. Sleep Deprivation Promotes Insulin Resistance 2001. Ford-Martin, P.
  33. Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. JAMA 1994; 271: 1421-8. Garg, A., Bantle, J., Henry, R. et al.
  34. Treatment of periodontal disease in diabetics reduces glycated hemoglobin. J. Periodontol. 1997 Aug; 68(8): 713-9. Grossi, S.G. et al.
  35. Decrease Your Sleep and Increase Your Risk of Diabetes 2001, The Lancet October 23, 1999;354:1435-1439. Mercola, J.
  36. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester v. oleic acid-risk safflower oil on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic model rats with hypertricylglycerolaemia. Br. J. Nutr. 2002 Feb; 87(2): 157-62. Minami, A. et al.
  37. Polyol pathway hyperactivity is closely related to carnitine deficiency in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1998; 287: 897-902. Nakamura, J. et al.
  38. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented with lifestyle change. Presented at the American Diabetes' Association's 60th Annual Scientific Session, San Antonio, Texas, June 9-13, 2000. Tuomilehto, J.
  39. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N. Engl. J. Med. 2001 May 3; 344(18): 1343-50. Tuomilehto, J. et al.
  40. The effect of sugar cereal with and without a mixed meal on glycemic response in children with diabetes. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 1991 Aug; 13(2): 155-60. Wang, S.R. et al.
  41. Prevalence of hyperinsulinemia in patients with high blood pressure. J. Intern. Med. 1992; 231: 235-40. Zavaroni, I., Mazza, S., Dall'aglio, E. et al.
  42. Use of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract in the control of blood glucose in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, J. Ethnopharmacology 30:281-294 (1990). Shanmugasundaram, E.R.B. et al.
  43. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003 Dec;26(12):3215-8. Khan A, Safdar M, Khan MMA, Khattak KN, Anderson RA.
  44. Dr. Mercola: Not only is type 2 diabetes completely preventable, but it is virtually curable for anyone who is willing to put in the hard time and work and recovering their insulin and leptin sensitivity
  45. The Diabetes Conundrum: What Physicians Are Teaching You May be Killing You - Read the surprising conclusion Dr. Rosedale, one of the leading diabetic doctors in the country, reaches about the current state of knowledge in diabetes.
  46. The Rosedale diet: The real "cure" for diabetes is to eat a diet that promotes insulin and leptin sensitivity.
  47. Natural Treatments For Diabetes: The Whitaker Wellness approach is very effective in reducing and often eliminating the need for oral diabetes drugs and insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes. 
    The Whitaker Wellness Institute’s approach to diabetes is twofold: to lower blood sugar and to reduce the risk of diabetic complications with diet, exercise, and targeted nutritional supplements.
  48. Diabetes Can Be Treated Without Drugs: Julian Whitaker, MD; Jul 03, 2009
    "Hundreds of clinical trials demonstrate that diabetes can not only be prevented but actually reversed -- not with drugs but with simple, inexpensive lifestyle measures."
  49. Health and Medicine: Dr. Neal Barnard's Program for Reversing Diabetes (a vegan diet w/ low GI foods) outlines a nutritional approach to diabetes that claims greater efficacy and fewer complications than that of the American Diabetes Association diet, citing the examples of study participants who successfully improved their ability to respond to insulin, lost weight, and ended medication dependency.
  50. Deborah Greenwood, MEd, CNS, BC-ADM, CDE: The Diabetes Prevention Program study, a very large randomized clinical trial (the most accurate study design) showed that you could reduce the development of diabetes by 58% by doing some simple things. 1. Lose 5-10% of your body weight by eating healthy, with calorie and fat reduction (only 25% of calories from fat). 2. Engage in physical activity for at least 30 minutes five times per week. These changes can significantly reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Other studies have looked at other types of weight loss such as using meal replacements. The global consensus is that if you lose weight and keep it off, you may be able to prevent diabetes as well as improve blood pressure and lab values.
  51. Raw for 30 Days is an independent documentary film that chronicles six Americans with diabetes who switch to a diet consisting entirely of vegan, organic, live, raw foods in order to reverse diabetes naturally.
    A medical team was established to monitor various health variables of the subjects. The diet: "No meat, no dairy, no alcohol, no caffeine, no refined foods, no junk food or fast food of any kind, no candies, no sugar". 
    Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes can be cured, or at least drastically reduce blood sugar, hemnoglobin a1c, blood pressure, cholesterol, weight, etc.
  52. A randomized trial of a church-based diabetes self-management program for African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Samuel-Hodge CD, Keyserling TC, Park S, Johnston LF, Gizlice Z, Bangdiwala SI. Diabetes Educ. 2009 May-Jun;35(3):439-54. Epub 2009 Apr 21. CONCLUSIONS: The church-based intervention was well received by participants and improved short-term metabolic control.
  53. Reduction in risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in response to a low-sugar, high-fiber dietary intervention in overweight Latino adolescents. Ventura E, Davis J, Byrd-Williams C, Alexander K, McClain A, Lane CJ, Spruijt-Metz D, Weigensberg M, Goran M. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009 Apr;163(4):320-7.
  54. A low-fat vegan diet elicits greater macronutrient changes, but is comparable in adherence and acceptability, compared with a more conventional diabetes diet among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Barnard ND, Gloede L, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, Green AA, Ferdowsian H. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Feb;109(2):263-72.
  55. Effect of a low-glycemic index or a high-cereal fiber diet on type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, McKeown-Eyssen G, Josse RG, Silverberg J, Booth GL, Vidgen E, Josse AR, Nguyen TH, Corrigan S, Banach MS, Ares S, Mitchell S, Emam A, Augustin LS, Parker TL, Leiter LA. JAMA. 2008 Dec 17;300(23):2742-53. In patients with type 2 diabetes, 6-month treatment with a low-glycemic index diet resulted in moderately lower HbA(1c) levels compared with a high-cereal fiber diet.
  56. Glucose and insulin responses to whole grain breakfasts varying in soluble fiber, beta-glucan: a dose response study in obese women with increased risk for insulin resistance. Kim H, Stote KS, Behall KM, Spears K, Vinyard B, Conway JM. Eur J Nutr. 2009 Apr;48(3):170-5. Epub 2009 Feb 5. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that acute consumption of 10 g of beta-glucan is able to induce physiologically beneficial effects on postprandial insulin responses in obese women at risk for insulin resistance.
  57. Effects of antioxidant supplementation on insulin sensitivity, endothelial adhesion molecules, and oxidative stress in normal-weight and overweight young adults. Vincent HK, Bourguignon CM, Weltman AL, Vincent KR, Barrett E, Innes KE, Taylor AG. Metabolism. 2009 Feb;58(2):254-62. Antioxidant supplementation moderately lowers HOMA and endothelial adhesion molecule levels in overweight young adults. A potential mechanism to explain this finding is the reduction in oxidative stress by AOX.
  58. Anti-inflammatory effect of lifestyle changes in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Herder C, Peltonen M, Koenig W, Sütfels K, Lindström J, Martin S, Ilanne-Parikka P, Eriksson JG, Aunola S, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Valle TT, Uusitupa M, Kolb H, Tuomilehto J; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group. Diabetologia. 2009 Mar;52(3):433-42. Epub 2009 Jan 8. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The present study assessed the individual effects of dietary and physical activity measures on low-grade inflammation in individuals at high cardiometabolic risk. Our results underline the importance of moderate to vigorous LTPA and a diet rich in natural fibre, and this should be emphasised in lifestyle recommendations.
  59. One-year comparison of a high-monounsaturated fat diet with a high-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. Brehm BJ, Lattin BL, Summer SS, Boback JA, Gilchrist GM, Jandacek RJ, D'Alessio DA. Diabetes Care. 2009 Feb;32(2):215-20. Epub 2008 Oct 28. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with type 2 diabetes, high-MUFA diets are an alternative to conventional lower-fat, high-CHO diets with comparable beneficial effects on body weight, body composition, cardiovascular risk factors, and glycemic control.
  60. Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 159, October 11, 1999, pp. 2151-59 Orchard, Trevor J. Magnesium and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Kao, W.H. Linda, et al. Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 159, October 11, 1999, pp. 2119-20 (editorial)
  61. Tosiello, Lorraine. Hypomagnesemia and diabetes mellitus. Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 156, June 10, 1996, pp. 1143-48
  62. Dietary Calcium and Magnesium Intakes and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: the Shanghai Women's Health Study.
    Villegas R, Gao YT, Dai Q, Yang G, Cai H, Li H, Zheng W, Shu XO. Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, and the Department of Epidemiology, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Shanghai, China.
  63. Note: Three of the largest studies ever done on the incidence of disease are the Harvard Nurses Health study of 85,000 women, the Health Professionals Follow-up study of 43,000 men, and the Iowa Women's Health study of 40,000 women. All three studies showed that those people with the highest levels of magnesium intake had the lowest risk for developing diabetes.
  64. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM): New Study Shows Vegan Diet Reduces Heart Disease Risk in People with Type 2 Diabetes
    (Oct. 3, 2008). A new report in October’s Journal of the American Dietetic Association shows that a low-fat vegan diet has a nutrient profile and diet quality associated with a greater reduction in heart disease risk in people with type 2 diabetes than a diet based on the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines.
    The vegan diet consisted of grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. Participants in this group avoided animal products and fatty foods and favored low-glycemic-index foods, such as sweet potatoes and rye and pumpernickel bread. There were no restrictions on calories or portion sizes. ADA guidelines provided recommendations on the intake of calories, carbohydrate, and saturated fat grams based on each participant’s body weight, lipid profile, and current food and eating habits.
  65. PCRM Clinical Research: Diabetes: Can a Vegan Diet Reverse Diabetes? (Feb. 15, 2005) by Andrew Nicholson, M.D.
    PCRM performed a carefully controlled test to compare two different diets: a high-fiber, low-fat, vegan diet and the more commonly used American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet. 
    The vegan group clearly had the edge in many of the results. Fasting blood sugars decreased 59 percent more in the vegan group than in the ADA group. And, while the vegans needed less medication to control their blood sugars, the ADA group needed just as much medicine as before. The vegans were taking less medicine, but were in better control.
    While the ADA group lost an impressive 8 pounds, on average, the vegans lost nearly 16 pounds. Cholesterol levels also dropped more substantially in the vegan group compared to the ADA group.
    The protein losses in the ADA group actually worsened somewhat over the 12 weeks of the study. The vegan group, on the other hand, had a large reduction in protein losses.
  66. PCRM study published in Obesity in 2007 shows that a vegan diet helps people lose more weight and keep it off more effectively than a more conventional low-fat diet that includes meat and dairy products. Gabrielle M. Turner-McGrievy, M.S., R.D.
  67. PCRM study published in Diabetes Care in 2006, found that participants on a vegan diet experienced significantly greater reductions in A1c (a measure of blood sugar levels over a prolonged period), weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and LDL (“bad”) cholesterol. Neal Barnard, M.D.
  68. China Study supports a plant-based diet that can prevent heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. The China Study:The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-term Health (2005).   Dr. T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D., Nutritional Biochemistry Cornell University.
  69. Note: The China Study was the culmination of a 20-year partnership of Cornell University, Oxford University and the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine.
  70. ^ The book itself says it was first published in January 2005, but Amazon says December 11, 2004; see The China Study (first edition, hardback), ISBN 978-1932100389, publication date December 11, 2004,
  71. ^ Parker-Pope, Tara. "Nutrition Advice From the China Study", The New York Times, January 7, 2011.
  72. "Geographic study of mortality, biochemistry, diet and lifestyle in rural China", Clinical Trial Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, accessed March 31, 2012.
  73. "Chinese ecological studies, Clinical Trial Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, accessed March 31, 2012.
  74. Campbell, T. Colin, et al. China: From Diseases of Poverty to Diseases of Affluence. Policy implications of the Epidemiological Transition", Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 27(2), 1992, pp. 133–144 (courtesy link).
  75. "Switch to Western diet may bring Western-type diseases", Cornell Chronicle, June 28, 2001.
  76. ^ Skerrett, Patrick J. and Willett, Walter C. Essentials of Healthy Eating: A Guide Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 6, 2010
  77. ^ Arnold, Wilfred Niels. "The China Study", Leonardo, accessed August 29, 2011.
  78. ^ Cordain, Loren and Campbell, T. Colin. "The Protein Debate", Performance Menu: Journal Of Nutrition & Athletic Excellence, 2008, accessed August 28, 2011.
  79. ^ O'Connor, Anahad. "Bill Clinton’s Vegan Journey", The New York Times, August 18, 2011.
  80. Martin, David S. "From omnivore to vegan: The dietary education of Bill Clinton", CNN, August 18, 2011.
  81. ^ Gupta, Sanjay. "Gupta: Becoming heart attack proof", CNN, 25 August 2011.
  82. Book: Campbell, T. Colin. "The China Study", The Huffington Post, June 28, 2008.
  83. Book: Nestle, Marion. Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health. University of California Press, 2007.
  84. Book: Nutrition Health Review. "The China study—what it means: an interview with T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D.", September 22, 2004.
  85.'s Treatment list for Diabetes: The list of treatments mentioned in various sources for Diabetes includes the following list. Always seek professional medical advice about any treatment or change in treatment plans.
  86. A Vegan Diet How-To Guide for Diabetes 
    a. A Vegan Diet: Avoiding Animal Products
    Animal products contain fat, especially saturated fat, which is linked to heart disease, insulin resistance, and certain forms of cancer. These products also contain cholesterol, something never found in foods from plants. And, of course, animal products contain animal protein. It may surprise you to learn that diets high in animal protein can aggravate kidney problems and calcium losses. Animal products never provide fiber or healthful complex carbohydrate.  
    A vegan diet is one that contains no animal products at all. So, to be specific, here are the foods you’ll want to avoid: red meat, poultry and fish, dairy products, and eggs.

b. Avoiding Added Vegetable Oils and Other High-Fat Foods 
Although most vegetable oils are in some ways healthier than animal fats, you will still want to keep them to a minimum. All fats and oils are highly concentrated in calories. A gram of any fat or oil contains nine calories, compared with only four calories for a gram of carbohydrate. 
You’ll also want to avoid foods fried in oil, oily toppings, and olives, avocados, and peanut butter.

c. Low Glycemic Index 
The glycemic index identifies foods that increase blood sugar rapidly and allows you to favor foods that have much less effect on blood sugar. High-glycemic-index foods include sugar itself, white potatoes, most wheat flour products, and most cold cereals.

d. Go High-Fiber 
Aim for 40 grams of fiber a day, but start slowly. Load up on beans, vegetables, and fruits. Choose whole grains (try barley, oats, quinoa, millet, whole wheat pasta, etc.). Aim for at least 3 grams per serving on labels and at least 10 grams per meal.

e. Volumetrics
Here is an optional step that can help with weight control. The idea is to eat foods that have fewer calories than grams per serving. Try adding lots of soups, salads, and foods cooked in water (like oatmeal) to your daily diet. These “heavy” foods will make you fill up without taking in a lot of calories.

f. Focus on the ‘New Four Food Groups’
Choose unlimited amounts of grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Small amounts of nonfat condiments, fat-free vegan cookies and crackers, alcohol, and coffee are also OK. 
Protein: Plant foods have plenty of protein. The recommended amount of protein in the diet for postmenopausal women is 10 percent of calories. Most vegetables, legumes, and grains contain this amount or more. Those seeking extra protein can choose more beans, asparagus, mushrooms, and broccoli. 
Calcium: Because diets rich in animal protein cause the body to lose more calcium, a person on a vegan diet needs less calcium to stay in calcium balance. Good sources of calcium include broccoli, kale, collards, mustard greens, beans, figs, fortified juices and cereals, and soy or rice milks.
Vitamin B12: Those following a diet free of animal products for more than three years (or at anytime in childhood, pregnancy, or nursing) should take a B12 supplement of 5 micrograms per day. Any common multiple vitamin will provide this amount. 

More References for Diabetes, Type 2

The following websitereferences are associated with reversing type 2 diabetes.

  14. and


  1. Exercise and the nitric oxide vasodilator system. Sports Med. 2003;33(14):1013-35. Review. PMID: 14599231. Maiorana A, O'Driscoll G, Taylor R, Green D., Australia
  2. Role of exercise training on cardiovascular disease in persons who have type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Cardiol Clin. 2004 Nov;22(4):569-86. PMID: 15501624. Stewart KJ.
  3. Influence of resistance exercise training on glucose control in women with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism. 2004 Mar;53(3):284-9. PMID: 15015138. Fenicchia LM, Kanaley JA, Azevedo JL Jr, Miller CS, Weinstock RS, Carhart RL, Ploutz-Snyder LL.
  4. Insulin resistance and associated metabolic abnormalities in muscle: effects of exercise. Obes Rev. 2001 Feb;2(1):47-59. Review. PMID: 12119637. Perez-Martin A, Raynaud E, Mercier J., France
  5. High-intensity resistance training improves glycemic control in older patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002 Oct;25(10):1729-36. PMID: 12351469. Dunstan DW, Daly RM, Owen N, Jolley D, De Courten M, Shaw J, Zimmet P., Australia
  6. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on physical performance and energy metabolism of endurance-trained athletes: a double blind crossover field study. Eur J Appl Physiol 1996;73:434–9. Colombani P, Wenk C, Kunz I, et al.
  7. Effects of postprandial exercise on glycemic response in IDDM subjects, improves insulin sensitivity. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1203. Rasmussen OW, Lauszus FF, Hermansen K.
  8. Physical activity and reduced occurrence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1991;325:147-52. Helmrich SP, Ragland DR, Leung RW, Paffenbarger RS.
  9. Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type II diabetes mellitus. JAMA 2001; 286(10): 1218-27. Boule, N.G. et al.
  10. Physical activity and reduced occurrence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N. Engl. J. Med. 1991 Jul 18; 325(3): 147-52. Helmrich, S.P. et al.

Eye Health

  1. Scientific basis for medical therapy of cataracts by antioxidants. 1992; Am J Clin Nutr 53(1 Suppl). Weisburger, J.
  2. Antioxidant nutrition and cataract in women: a study. 1993; Nutr Rev 51(3): 84-6. Bunce, G.
  3. Diabetic cataracts and flavonoids. Science. 1977;195:205–206. Varma SD, Mizuno A, Kinoshita JH.
  4. Role of nutrients in delaying cataracts. 1992; Ann N Y Acad Sci 669(1): 11-23. Taylor, A.
  5. A possible role for vitamins C and E in cataract prevention. 1991; Am J Clin Nutr 53(1 Suppl): 346S-351S. Robertson, J., A. Donner, et al.
  6. The role of the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, in protecting against age-related macular degeneration: A review based on controversial evidence. Nutr J. 2003 Dec 11;2(1):20. PMID: 14670087. Mozaffarieh M, Sacu S, Wedrich A., Vienna, Austria.
  7. Zinc and the eye. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Apr;20(2 Suppl):106-18. Review. PMID: 11349933. Grahn BH, Paterson PG, Gottschall-Pass KT, Zhang Z., Saskatoon, Canada.
  8. Health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. Nurs Stand. 2004 Aug 11-17;18(48):38-42. Review. PMID: 15366399. Ruxton C.
  9. Efficacy of N-acetyl carnosine in the treatment of cataracts. Drugs R D. 2002;3(2):87-103. Babizhayev MA, Deyev AI, Yermakova VN, Semiletov YA, Davydova NG, Doroshenko VS, Zhukotskii AV, Goldman IM., Innovative Vision Products, Inc., County of Newcastle, Delaware.
  10. Bilberry  may lower the risk of some diabetic complications, such as diabetic cataracts and retinopathy. One preliminary trial found that supplementation with a standardized extract of bilberry improved signs of retinal damage in some people with diabetic retinopathy. Klin Monatsblatt Augenheilk 1981;178:386-9. Scharrer A, Ober M. Anthocyanoside in der Behandlung von Retinopathien.
  11. Epidemiologic evidence of a role for the antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids in cataract prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:352S-355S. Jacques PF, Chylack LT.


  1. Diets containing soluble oat extracts improve glucose and insulin responses of moderately hypercholesterolemic men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:379-84. Hallfrisch J, Scholfield DJ, Behall KM.
  2. Beneficial effects of viscous dietary fiber from Konjac-mannan in subjects with the insulin resistance syndrome: results of a controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care 2000;23:9-14. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Owen R, et al.
  3. Hypoglycemic effect of 1-3 ounces of powdered fenugreek seeds in non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects. Nutr Res 1990;10:731-9. Sharma RD, Raghuram TC.
  4. Effect of konjac fiber (glucomannan) on glucose and lipids. Reduces the elevation of blood sugar levels that is typical after a meal. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49(Suppl. 3):S190-7. Doi K.
  5. Effect of Konjac food on blood glucose level in patients with diabetes. Overall diabetic control is improved with glucomannan-enriched diets. Biomed Environ Sci 1990;3:123-31. Huang CY, Zhang MY, Peng SS, et al.
  6. Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes in controlled study. A randomized controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care 1999;22:913-9. Vuksan V, Jenkins DJ, Spadafora P, et al.
  7. Effects of psyllium on glucose and serum lipid responses in men with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia.  In a double-blind trial, supplementing of 5.1 grams of psyllium per day for eight weeks lowered blood glucose levels by 11% to 19.2%,  total cholesterol by 8.9%, and LDL (bad) cholesterol by 13%, compared to a placebo. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:466-73. Anderson JW, Allgood LD, Turner J, et al.
  8. Supplementation with dietary fiber improves fecal incontinence. Nurs Res 2001 Jul-Aug; 50(4): 203-13. Bliss DZ, Jung HJ, Savik K, Lowry A, LeMoine M, Jensen L, Werner C, Schaffer K. 2001.
  9. Dietary protein and soluble fiber reduce ambulatory blood pressure in treated hypertensives. Hypertension 2001 Oct; 38(4): 821-6. Burke V, Hodgson JM, Beilin LJ, Giangiulioi N, Rogers P, Puddey IB. 2001.

Fish Oil

  1. The long-term outcome of patients with IgA nephropathy treated with fish oil in a controlled trial. Mayo Nephrology Collaborative Group. J Am Soc Nephrol 1999;10:1772-7. Donadio JV Jr, Grande JP, Bergstralh EJ, et al.
  2. Biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1991;14:1160-79. Malasanos TH, Stacpoole PW.
  3. Effect of fish oil concentrate on lipoprotein composition in NIDDM. Diabetes 1988; 37:1567-73. Schectman G, Kaul S, Kassebah AH.
  4. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on glucose homeostasis and blood pressure in hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:911-8. Toft I, Bonaa KH, Ingebretsen OC, et al.
  5. The independent and combined effects of aerobic exercise and dietary fish intake on serum lipids and glycemic control in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1997; 20:913-21. Dunstan DW, Burke V, Mori TA, et al.
  6. Effect of high fiber intake in fish oil-treated patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66:1183-7. Sheehan JP, Wei IW, Ulchaker M, Tserng KY.
  7. Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65:445-50. Adler AJ, Holub BJ.
  8. Intake of mercury from fish, lipid peroxidation, and the risk of myocardial infarction and coronary, cardiovascular, and any death in eastern Finnish men. Circulation 1995;91:645-55. Salonen JT, Seppanen K, Nyyssonen K, et al.
  9. Fish diet, fish oil and docosahexaenoic acid rich oil lower fasting and postprandial plasma lipid levels. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:765-71. Agren JJ, Hanninen O, Julkunen A, et al.
  10. Effects of fish oil supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1990;49:76-80. van der Tempel H, Tulleken JE, Limburg PC, et al.
  11. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl on albuminuria of non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1995;28:35-40. Shimizu H, Ohtani K, Tanaka Y, et al.
  12. Fish oil improves arterial compliance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Arterioscler Thromb 1994;14:1425-9. McVeigh GE, Brennan GM, Cohn JN, et al.
  13. Short report: the effect of fish oil on blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in phase I of the trials of hypertension prevention. J Hypertens 1994;12:209-13. Sacks FM, Hebert P, Appel LJ, et al.
  14. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in treated-hypertensive type 2 diabetic subjects. This study is the first report demonstrating that either EPA or DHA reduce in vivo oxidant stress without changing markers of inflammation, in treated hypertensive, type 2 diabetic subjects. Mori TA, Woodman RJ, Burke V, Puddey IB, Croft KD, Beilin LJ., Dept. of Medicine, The University of Western Australia.
  15. Neuroprotective effect of docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids in experimental diabetic neuropathy. These results demonstrate a protective effect of daily doses of DHA on experimental diabetic neuropathy. Coste TC, Gerbi A, Vague P, Pieroni G, Raccah D., Faculte de Medecine Timone, Marseille, France.

Glyconutrients; Ginkgo biloba, Ginseng, Fenugreek

  1. Effects of nutraceutical and glyconutrients in diabetes mellitus:  decreased glucose levels, improved healing of foot ulcers, weight loss, reduced medications. Proc Fisher Inst Med Res. 1997; 1: 19-23, McDaniel CF;Dykman KD;McDaniel R;Ford C;Tone C
  2. Nutraceuticals and glyconutrients decrease blood glucose and pain in an individual with non-insulin dependent diabetes and myofascial pain syndrome. Proc Fisher Inst Med Res. 1997; 1: 30-31, McDaniel CF;Stevens EW
  3. Effect of glyconutritionals on oxidative stress. GlycoScience & Nutrition. 2001:2(12):1-10. Goux WJ, Boyd S, Tone CM, et al.
  4. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) reduces postprandial glycemia in non-diabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1009–13. Vuksan V, Sivenpiper JL, Koo VY, et al.
  5. The effect of 3-month ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract on pancreatic ß-cell function in response to glucose loading in normal glucose-tolerant individuals. J Clin Pharmacol 2000;40:647–4. Kudolo GB.
  6. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type 1 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990;44:301–6. Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Sudhakar Rao N.
  7. Use of fenugreek seed powder in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Nutr Res 1996;16:1131–9. Sharma RD, Sakar A, Hazra DK, et al.
  8. American ginseng (3 grams/day) reduces postprandial glycemia in non-diabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1009-13. Vuksan V, Sivenpiper JL, Koo VY, et al.
  9. Ginkgo biloba extract and folic acid in the therapy of changes caused by autonomic neuropathy. Ginkgo biloba extract may prove useful for prevention and treatment of early-stage diabetic neuropathy. Other herbs:fenugreek  seeds and eleuthero (Siberian ginseng). Acta Med Austriaca 1989;16:35-7 [in German]. Koltringer P, Langsteger W, Lind P, et al.

Grape Seed Extract, Resveratrol

  1. Grape seed extract induces apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells via caspases activation accompanied by dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. Carcinogenesis. 2002 Nov;23(11):1869-76. Agarwal C, Singh RP, Agarwal R., Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Denver, CO.
  2. Inhibition of human LDL oxidation by resveratrol. Lancet. 1993;341:1103–1104. Frankel EN, Waterhouse AL, Kinsella JE.
  3. Biological effects of resveratrol. Resveratrol is a common phytoalexin found in grape skins, peanuts, and red wine. Acts as an antioxidant, promotes nitric oxide production, inhibits platelet aggregation, increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; can function as a cancer chemo-preventive agent; has been reported to have some estrogenic properties; exhibits anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antiviral properties. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2001 Dec;3(6):1041-64, Bhat KPL, Kosmeder JW 2nd, Pezzuto JM., Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois Cancer Center, University of Illinois at Chicago.
  4. Benefits of resveratrol in women's health. Supplementation may be a potential alternative to conventional HRT for cardio-protection and osteoporosis prevention and may confer other potential health benefits in women. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2001;27(5-6):233-48. Bagchi D, Das DK, Tosaki A, Bagchi M, Kothari SC., Dept. of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions.
  5. Neuroprotective effects of resveratrol against beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in rat hippocampal neurons: involvement of protein kinase C. Resveratrol, an active ingredient of red wine extracts, has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in several experimental models. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Mar;141(6):997-1005.

Gymnema Sylvestre, Bitter Melon

  1. Anti-diabetic effect of Gymnema montanum leaves: effect on lipid peroxidation induced oxidative stress in experimental diabetes. Pharmacol Res. 2003 Dec;48(6):551-6. PMID: 14527818. Ananthan R, Baskar C, NarmathaBai V, Pari L, Latha M, Ramkumar KM.
  2. Anti-diabetic effect of a leaf extract from Gymnema sylvestre in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;30:295–305. Baskaran K, Ahmath BK, Shanmugasundaram KR, Shanmugasundaram ERB.
  3. Effect of extended release gymnema sylvestre leaf extract (Beta Fast GXR) alone or in combination with oral hypoglycemics or insulin regimens for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes In Control Newsletter 2001;76. Joffe DJ, Freed SH.
  4. New hypoglycemic constituents in "gymnemic acid" from Gymnema sylvestre. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1996;44:469–71. Murakami N, Murakami T, Kadoya M, et al.
  5. Insulinotropic activity of G. sylvestre, R.Br. and Indian medicinal herb used in controlling diabetes mellitus. Pharmacol Res Commun 1981;13:475–86. Shanmugasundaram KR, Panneerselvam C, Sumudram P, Shanmugasundaram ERB.
  6. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia): a review of efficacy and safety. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2003 Feb 15;60(4):356-9. Review. PMID: 12625217. Basch E, Gabardi S, Ulbricht C.
  7. Effect of bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) on level and function of natural killer cells in cervical cancer patients with radiotherapy. J Med Assoc Thai 2003;Jan, 86(1):61-68.  Pongnikorn S, Fongmoon D, Kasinrerk W, Limtrakul PN.
  8. Improvement of glucose tolerance due to Momordica charantia (bitter melon slices). BMJ 1981;282:1823-4. Leatherdale BA, Panesar RK, Singh G, et al. 
  9. Anti-diabetic and adaptogenic properties of Momordica charantia extract (bitter melon): An experimental and clinical evaluation. Phytother Res 1993;7:285-9. Srivastava Y, Venkatakrishna-bhatt H, Verma Y, et al.
  10. Effect of Extended Release Gymnema Sylvestre Leaf Extract (Beta Fast GXR) Alone or In Combination With Oral Hypoglycemics or Insulin Regimens for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. The use of Gymnema Sylvestre (Beta Fast GXR®) supplementation in all patients with diabetes has a positive result. Reducing postprandial blood glucose significantly caused a decrease of HbA1c, therefore reducing the complications from diabetes. Diabetes In Control Newsletter, Issue 76 (1) : 30 Oct 2001. Joffe, DJ;  Freed, SH.
  11. Possible regeneration of the islets of Langerhans in streptozotocin diabetic rats given Gymnema sylvestre leaf extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;30:265-79. Shanmugasundaram ERB, Leela Gopinath K, Radha Shanmugasundaram K, Rajendran VM.
  12. New hypoglycemic constituents in "gymnemic acid" from Gymnema sylvestre. Chem Pharm Bull1996;44:469-471. Murakami N, Murakami T, and Kadoya M.

  13. Effect of administration with the extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves on lipid metabolism in rats.  Biol Pharm Bull 2001;24:713-717. Shigematsu N, Asano R, and Okazaki M.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract. Fitoterapia. 2003 Dec;74(7-8):699-701.Satdive RK et al.

  15. Comparative effects of chromium, vanadium and gymnema sylvestre on sugar-induced blood pressure elevations in SHR. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998 Apr;17(2):116-23. Preuss HG et al.

  16. Enzyme changes and glucose utilization in diabetic rabbits: the effect of Gymnema sylvestre, R.Br. J Ethnopharmacol. 1983 Mar;7(2):205-34. Shanmugasundaram KR et al.

  17. Use of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract in the control of blood glucose in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Oct;30(3):281-94. Shanmugasundaram ER et al.

  18. Antidiabetic effect of a leaf extract from Gymnema sylvestre in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Oct;30(3):295-300.K, et al.

  19. The inhibitors of glucose absorption from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R. BR. (Asclepiadaceae): structures of gymnemosides a and b. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1997 Oct;45(10):1671-6. Yoshikawa M, et al, Medicinal foodstuffs. IX.

  20. Decreased bodyweight without rebound and regulated lipoprotein metabolism by gymnemate in genetic multifactor syndrome animal.
    Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 May. Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Division of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, 683-8503, Japan.

  21. Preparation and evaluation of Tincture of Gymnema Sylvestre (Family- Asclepiadaceae) by Physico-Chemical, TLC and Spectroscopic characteristics. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, V.55(3): P.178-181,1995 (Eng.14 Ref). Mukherjee,P.K., rajesh Kumar,M., Saha,K., Giri,S.N., Pal, M, Saha B.P. 

  22. Characterization of the Insulinotropic Activity of an Aqueous Extract of Gymnema Sylvestre in Mouse ß-Cells and Human Islets of Langerhans. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 2009;23:125-132. Bo Liu, Henry Asare-Anane, Altaf Al-Romaiyan, GuoCai Huang, Stephanie A Amiel, Peter M Jones, Shanta J Persaud. 

  23. Constituents from Gymnema sylvestre Leaves V: Isolation and preliminary characterization of Gymnemic acids.J. Pharm. Sci. 1970;59:622–628. Sinsheimer J.E., Subba R.G., Mc Ilhenny H.M.

  24. A study of Indian medicinal plants. II. Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.Indian J Med Res Memoirs1930;16:2–75.Mhasker KS, Caius JF. 
    Insulinotropic activity of G. sylvestre,R.Br. and Indian medicinal herb used in controlling diabetes mellitus. Pharmacol Res Commun1981;13:475–86. Shanmugasundaram KR, Panneerselvam C, Sumudram P, Shanmugasundaram ERB. 
    Gymnema sylvestre. Alt Med Rev1999;4:46–7 [review].

  25. An extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves and purified gymnemic acid inhibits glucose-stimulated gastric inhibitory peptide secretion in rats. J Nutr1992;122:2367–73.7. Fushiki T, Kojima A, Imoto T, et al. 

  26. A study of Indian medicinal plants. II. Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.Indian J Med Res Memoirs1930;16:2–75.Mhasker KS, Caius JF.
    Insulinotropic activity of G. sylvestre,R.Br. and Indian medicinal herb used in controlling diabetes mellitus. Pharmacol Res Commun1981;13:475–86. Shanmugasundaram KR, Panneerselvam C, Sumudram P, Shanmugasundaram ERB. 

  27. An extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves and purified gymnemic acid inhibits glucose-stimulated gastric inhibitory peptide secretion in rats. J Nutr1992;122:2367–73. Fushiki T, Kojima A, Imoto T, et al. 

  28. Antidiabetic effect of a leaf extract from Gymnema sylvestre in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;30:295–305.8. Baskaran K, Ahmath BK, Shanmugasundaram KR, Shanmugasundaram ERB. 

  29. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of Momordica cymbalaria Hook. fruit powder in alloxan-diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 67 (1): 103–9. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00004-5. PMID 10616966. Rao BK, Kesavulu MM, Giri R, Appa Rao C (October 1999).

  30. Antihyperglycemic effects of three extracts from Momordica charantia. J Ethnopharmacol 88 (1): 107–11. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00184-3. PMID 12902059.  Virdi J, Sivakami S, Shahani S, Suthar AC, Banavalikar MM, Biyani MK. (September 2003).

  31. Effect of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) on glycaemic status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 60 (3): 109–12. doi:10.1007/s11130-005-6837-x. PMID 16187012. Shetty AK, Kumar GS, Sambaiah K, Salimath PV (September 2005).

  32. Bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia): A dietary approach to hyperglycemia. Nutr Rev. 64 (7 Pt 1): 331–7. PMID 16910221. Krawinkel MB, Keding GB (July 2006).

  33. Hypoglycemic activity of the fruit of the Momordica charantia in type 2 diabetic mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 47 (5): 340–4. PMID 11814149. Miura T, Itoh C, Iwamoto N, Kato M, Kawai M, Park SR, Suzuki I (October 2001).  

  34. About Herbs: Bitter Melon. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
    Using bitter melon to treat diabetes. Altern Complemen Ther 11 (4): 179–184. doi:10.1089/act.2005.11.179.Abascal K, Yarnell E (2005).

  35. Foods that Heal. The Natural Way to Good Health. Orient Paperbacks. ISBN 81-222-0033-8. H.K.Bakhru (1997).

  36. Clinical trial in patients with diabetes mellitus of an insulin-like compound obtained from plant source. Upsala J Med Sci 82 (1): 39–41. Baldwa VS, Bhandari CM, Pangaria A, Goyal RK (1977). 

  37. Bitter Melon. Review of Natural Products. factsandcomparisons4.0 [online]. 2004. Available from Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Accessed April 16, 2007

  38. Bitter Melon is an herb that has demonstrated the ability to stimulate beta cell regeneration in diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2007 Dec;45(12):1055-62. PMID: 18254212 Abstract Author: Neera Singh, Manushma Gupta.

Neuropathy, Nephropathy

  1. The effect of gamma-linolenic acid on human diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. 4 grams of evening primrose oil per day for six months improved nerve function and relieved pain symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Diabet Med 1990;7:319-23. Jamal GA, Carmichael H.
  2. Regression of diabetic neuropathy with total vegetarian (vegan) diet. J Nutr Med 1994;4:431-9. Crane MG, Sample C.
  3. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biotin may also reduce pain. Biomed Pharmacother 1990;44:511-4. Koutsikos D, Agroyannis B, Tzanatos-Exarchou H.
  4. The effect of gamma-linolenic acid on human diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Supplementing with 4 grams of evening primrose oil per day for six months improved nerve function and relieved pain symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Diabet Med 1990;7:319-23. Jamal GA, Carmichael H.
  5. L-acetyl-carnitine as a new therapeutic approach for peripheral neuropathies with pain. 1 gram per day by injection reduced pain from diabetic nerve damage. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1995;15:9-15. Onofrj M, Fulgente T, Mechionda D, et al.
  6. Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy with topical capsaicin. A multicenter, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study. The Capsaicin Study Group. Double-blind trials have shown that topical application of creams containing 0.025-0.075% capsaicin (from cayenne can relieve symptoms of diabetic neuropathy (numbness and tingling in the extremities). Four or more applications per day may be required to relieve severe pain, but this should be done only under a doctor’s supervision. Arch Intern Med 1991;151:2225-9.

Nutrition, Vitamins, Other Supplements

  1. Antioxidant nutrient intake and diabetic retinopathy. The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Ophthalmology 1998;105:2264–70. Mayer-Davis E, Bell RA, Reboussin BA, et al.
  2. Inhibition of whole blood platelet aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts. 1992; Thromb Res 65(2): 141-56. Lawson, L., D. Ransom, et al.
  3. The effect of a salmon diet on blood clotting, platelet aggregation and fatty acids. 1991; Lipids 26(2): 87-96. Nelson, G., P. Schmidt, et al.
  4. Comparison of effects of high and low carb diets on plasma lipoproteins and insulin sensitivity in patients with NIDDM. 1992; Diabetes 41(10): 1278-85. Garg, A., S. Grundy.
  5. A high-monounsaturated fat/low-carbohydrate diet improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. 1992; Metabolism 41(12): 1373-8. Parillo, M., A. Rivellese, et al.
  6. Effects of dietary carbohydrate and fat intake on glucose and lipoprotein metabolism in individuals with diabetes mellitus. 1991; Diabetes Care 14(9): 774-85. Hollenbeck, C. and A. Coulston.
  7. Carnosine: an endogenous neuroprotector in the ischemic brain. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 1999; 19(1):45-56. Stvolinsky SL, Kukley ML, Dobrota D, et al.
  8. Action of carnosine and beta-alanine on wound healing. Surgery. 1986; 100(5):815-21. Nagai K, Suda T, Kawasaki K, et al.
  9. Breakfast Foods and the Health Benefits of Inulin and Oligofructose. K. Niness. Orafti Active Food Ingredients, Malvern PA. Copyright 1999 American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.
  10. Comparison of the effects of psyllium and wheat bran on gastrointestinal transit time and stool characteristics. J Am Diet Assoc 1988;88:323-6. Stevens J. VanSoest PJ, Robertson JB, Levitsky DA.
  11. Improved insulin response and action by chronic magnesium administration in aged NIDDM subjects. Double-blind research indicates that supplementing with magnesium improves insulin production in elderly people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1989;12:265-9. Paolisso G, Sgambato S, Pizza G, et al.
  12. Magnesium supplementation in the treatment of diabetes. Connection between magnesium deficiency and insulin resistance. Doctors recommend a daily 200-600 mg magnesium  supplement for diabetics with normal kidney function. Diabetes Care 1992;15:1065-7. American Diabetes Association.
  13. Vitamin D and pancreatic islet function. Vitamin D is needed to maintain adequate blood levels of insulin. J Endocrine Invest 1988;11:577-84. Labriji-Mestaghanmi H, Billaudel B, Garnier PE, Sutter BCJ.
  14. Inadequate vitamin D status: does it contribute to the disorders comprising syndrome ‘X’? Vitamin D receptors have been found in the pancreas where insulin is made and preliminary evidence suggests that supplementation can increase insulin levels in some people with type 2 diabetes; prolonged supplementation might also help reduce blood sugar levels. Br J Nutr 1998;79:315-27 [review]. Boucher BJ.
  15. Preventing complications of diabetes. Doctors have suggested that quercetin might help people with diabetes because of its ability to reduce levels of sorbitol.  Townsend Letter 1985;32:307 [editorial]. Gaby A.
  16. Oral vanadyl sulfate improves insulin sensitivity in NIDDM but not in obese non-diabetic subjects. Diabetes 1996;45:659-66. Halberstam M, Cohen N, Schlimovich P, et al.
  17. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed. Pharmacother. 1990; 44: 511-4. Koutsikos, D. et al.
  18. Therapeutic evaluation of the effect of biotin on hyperglycemia in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 1993; 14: 211-18. Maebashi, M. et al.
  19. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003 Dec;26(12):3215-8. Khan A, Safdar M, Khan MMA, Khattak KN, Anderson RA.
  20. Effect of Drinking Soda Sweetened with Aspartame or High Fructose Corn Syrup on Food Intake and Body Weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1990 51, 963-96. Tordoff, M. and Alleva, A.M.
  21. Effects of sweetness perception and caloric value of a preload on short term intake, Physiol Behav 1983 Jan;30(1):1-9. Brala PM, Hagen RL.


Nuts and Seeds 

  1. Kris-Etherton PM, Yu-Poth S, Sabaté J, Ratcliffe HE, Zhao G, Etherton TD (1999). "Nuts and their bioactive constituents: effects on serum lipids and other factors that affect disease risk". Am J Clin Nutr 70 (3 Suppl): 504S–511S. PMID 10479223
  2. "Walnuts are the healthiest nut, say scientists". BBC News. March 27, 2011. Retrieved March 28, 2011.
  3. Kelly JH, Sabaté J (2006). "Nuts and coronary heart disease: an epidemiological perspective". Br J Nutr 96: S61–S67. doi:10.1017/BJN20061865. PMID 17125535
  4. Luo, C; Zhang, Y; Ding, Y; Shan, Z; Chen, S; Yu, M; Hu, FB; Liu, L (July 2014). "Nut consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.". The American journal of clinical nutrition 100 (1): 256–69. PMID 24847854.
  5. Sabaté J, Fraser GE, Burke K, Knutsen SF, Bennett H, Linsted KD (1993). "Effects of walnuts on serum lipid levels and blood pressure in normal men". Engl J Med 328 (9): 603–607. doi:10.1056/NEJM199303043280902.
  6. Rajaram S, Hasso Haddad E, Mejia A, Sabaté J (2009) Walnuts and fatty fish influence different serum lipid fractions in normal to mildly hyperlipidemic individuals: a randomized controlled study. Am J Clin Nutr 2009, 89, 1657S-1663S
  7. Josse AR, Kendall CW, Augustin LS, Ellis PR, Jenkins DJ (2007). "Almonds and postprandial glycemia — a dose response study". Metabolism 56 (3): 400–404. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2006.10.024. PMID 17292730
  8. "Remains of seven types of edible nuts and nutcrackers found at 780,000-year-old archaeological site". February 2002. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
  9. Linus Pauling Micronutrient Information Centre Nuts
  10. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Nuts and their bioactive constituents: effects on serum lipids and other factors that affect disease risk.
  11. Cunnane SC, Ganguli S, Menard C, Liede AC, Hamadeh MJ, Chen ZY, Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ (1993). "High alpha-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum): some nutritional properties in humans". Br J Nutr. 69 (2): 443–53. doi:10.1079/bjn19930046. PMID 8098222
  12. Singh KK, Mridula D, Rehal J, Barnwal P (2011). "Flaxseed: a potential source of food, feed and fiber". Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 51 (3): 210–22. doi:10.1080/10408390903537241. PMID 21390942
  13. USDA SR-21 Nutrient Data (2010). "Nutrition facts for dried chia seeds, one ounce". Conde Nast, Nutrition Data.
    Dunn C (25 May 2015). "Is chia the next quinoa?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  14. "Nutrition Facts for Hemp Seeds (shelled) per 100 g serving". Conde Nast, Custom Analysis. 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
    House JD, Neufeld J, Leson G; Neufeld; Leson (November 2010).
  15. "Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58 (22): 11801–7. doi:10.1021/jf102636b. PMID 20977230
  16. "Sunflower Seeds, Pistachios Among Top Nuts For Lowering Cholesterol". Science Daily. 7 December 2005. Retrieved 2011-03-27.
  17. "Nutrition facts for pumpkin seeds, whole, roasted, without salt". SELF Nutritiondata. Condé Nast Publications. Retrieved 1 September 2012.

Obesity, Weight Loss

  1. Leptin levels in type 2 diabetes: associations with measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion. The main determinants for leptin levels in type 2 diabetic subjects as in healthy subjects - insulin secretion and the degree of insulin resistance also seem to contribute significantly to leptin levels. Horm Metab Res. 2003 Feb;35(2):92-6. Wauters M, Considine RV, Yudkin JS, Peiffer F, De Leeuw I, Van Gaal LF., Dept. of Diabetology, Metabolism and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital Antwerp, Belgium.
  2. Dietary fish as a major component of a weight-loss diet: effect on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin metabolism in overweight hypertensive subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:817-25. Mori TA, Bao DQ, Burke V.
  3. Long-term exercise training with constant energy intake. 1: Effect on body composition and selected metabolic variables. Int. J. Obesity 14:57-73, 1990. Bouchard C., A. Tremblay, A. Nadeau, J. Dussault, J.-P. Despres, G. Theriault, P.J. Lupien, O. Serresse, M.R. Boulay, and G. Fournier.
  4. Body composition, visceral fat, leptin, and insulin resistance in Asian Indian men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab84 :137 –144,1999. Banerji MA, Faridi N, Atluri R, Chaiken RL Lebovitz HE.
  5. Obesity as a disease. Br. Med. Bull. 1997; 53: 307-21. Jung, R.
  6. Fat metabolism during exercise. Sports Science Exchange, 8(6), article 59. Coyle, E.F. 1995.
  7. Sex differences in endurance capacity and metabolic response to prolonged, heavy exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 52, 446-450; 1984. Frogerg, K., & Pedersen, P.K.
  8. Energy expenditure in different modes of exercise. American College of Sports Medicine Current Comment, June, 2002. Kravitz, L. & Vella, C.A.
  9. Long-term exercise training with constant energy intake. 1: Effect on body composition and selected metabolic variables. Int. J. Obesity 14:57-73, 1990. Bouchard C., A. Tremblay, A. Nadeau, J. Dussault, J.-P. Despres, G. Theriault, P.J. Lupien, O. Serresse, M.R. Boulay, and G. Fournier.
  10. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Sacks FM, Bray GA, Carey VJ, Smith SR, Ryan DH, Anton SD, McManus K, Champagne CM, Bishop LM, Laranjo N, Leboff MS, Rood JC, de Jonge L, Greenway FL, Loria CM, Obarzanek E, Williamson DA. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 26;360(9):859-73. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasize. ( number, NCT00072995.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
  11. Reduced body weight and adiposity with a high-protein diet improves functional status, lipid profiles, glycemic control, and quality of life in patients with heart failure: a feasibility study. Evangelista LS, Heber D, Li Z, Bowerman S, Hamilton MA, Fonarow GC. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2009 May-Jun;24(3):207-15. CONCLUSION: A 12-week HP diet resulted in moderate weight loss and reduced adiposity in a small sample of overweight and obese patients with HF that were associated with improvements in functional status, lipid profiles, glycemic control, and QOL.

Omega-3, Omega-6 EFAs, Monounsaturated Fats

  1. The effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on coronary atherosclerosis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:554-62. von Schacky C, Angerer P, Kothny W, et al.
  2. Biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1991;14:1160-79. Malasanos TH, Stacpoole PW.
  3. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on glucose homeostasis and blood pressure in essential hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:911-8. Toft I, Bonaa KH, Ingebretsen OC.
  4. Arterial compliance in obese subjects is improved with dietary plant n-3 fatty acid from flaxseed oil despite increased LDL oxidizability. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. July 1997;17(6):1163-1170. Nestel PJ, Pomeroy SE, Sasahara T, et al.
  5. Dietary supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves insulin sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetes Res 1987;4:141–7. Popp-Snijders C, Schouten JA, Heine RJ, et al.
  6. Dietary fish as a major component of a weight-loss diet: effect on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin metabolism in overweight hypertensive subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:817-825. Mori TA, Bao, DQ, Burke V, et al.
  7. Dietary fat and risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration. Arch Opthalmol. 2001;119(8):1191-1199. Seddon JM, Rosner B, Sperduto RD, Yannuzzi L, Haller JA, Blair NP, Willett W.
  8. Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:1407-1415. Montori V, Farmer A, Wollan PC, Dinneen SF.
  9. The effect of fish oil on hypertension, plasma lipids and hemostasis in hypertensive, obese, dyslipidemic patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1999;61(2):83-87. Yosefy C, Viskoper JR, Laszt A, Priluk R, Guita E, Varon D, et al.
  10. Olive oil supplementation decreases LDL oxidation. 1993; Harefuah 124(1): 1-4. Aviram, M. and E. Kassem.
  11. The effects of monounsaturated-fat enriched diet and polyunsaturated-fat enriched diet on lipid and glucose metabolism in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:592–8. Sarkkinen E, Schwab U, Niskanen L, et al.
  12. Comparison of a high-carbohydrate diet with a high-monounsaturated-fat diet in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1988;319:829–34. Garg A, Bananome A, Grundy SM, et al.
  13. Beneficial effects of increasing monounsaturated fat intake in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2000;48:193–9. Donaghue KC, Pena MM, Chan AK, et al.
  14. Docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids in plasma phospholipids are divergently associated with high density lipoprotein. Arterioscler Thromb. 1992;12(6):675-681. Bonaa KH, Bjerve KS, Nordoy A.
  15. Effects of docosahexanoic acid on serum lipoproteins in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997;16:3:236-243. Davidson MH, Maki KC, Kalkowski J, Schaefer EJ, Torri SA, Drennan KB.
  16. Similar effects of rapeseed oil (canola oil) and olive oil in a lipid-lowering diet for patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. The results indicate lipid-lowering diets containing either rapeseed oil or olive oil have similar effects on serum lipoprotein concentration and glucose tolerance in hyperlipidemic subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995 Dec;14(6):643-51. Nydahl M, Gustafsson IB, Ohrvall M, Vessby B., Univ. of Uppsala, Sweden.
  17. Food safety and health effects of canola oil. Canola oil contains 55% of the monounsaturated fatty acid; oleic acid, 25% linoleic acid and 10% alpha-linolenate [polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)], and only 4% of the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) that have been implicated as factors in hypercholesterolemia. It is very low in erucic acid--a fatty acid suspected to have pathogenic potential in diets high in the original rapeseed oil in experimental animals. J Am Coll Nutr. 1989 Oct;8(5):360-75. Review. Dupont J, White PJ, Johnston KM, Heggtveit HA, McDonald BE, Grundy SM, Bonanome A., Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames.
  18. The efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma homocysteine and malondialdehyde levels of type 2 diabetic patients. Pooya S, Jalali MD, Jazayery AD, Saedisomeolia A, Eshraghian MR, Toorang F. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Jun 18.

Pancreas: Herbs for Health of Pancreas




[4] Selective induction of apoptosis and autophagy through treatment with dandelion root extract in human pancreatic cancer cells.

[5] The effect of Equisetum arvense L. (Equisetaceae) in histological changes of pancreatic beta-cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic in rats.

[6] Inhibitory effect of clonal oregano extracts against porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro.

[7] Long-term effects of Terminalia chebula Retz. on hyperglycemia and associated hyperlipidemia, tissue glycogen content and in vitro release of insulin in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

[8] A new extract of the plant Calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation.






[14] Dónal O'Mathúna and Walter L. Larimore, Alternative Medicine: The Christian Handbook (Zondervan, 2001)



  1. Elliott Middleton Jr., Chithan Kandaswami, and Theoharis C. Theoharides. The Effects of Plant Flavonoids on Mammalian Cells:Implications for Inflammation, Heart Disease, and Cancer. Pharmacological Reviews December 1, 2000 vol. 52 no. 4 673-751.
  2. Claudine Manach, Augustin Scalbert, Christine Morand, Christian Rémésy, and Liliana Jiménez. Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr May 2004 vol. 79 no. 5 727-747.
  3. Afaq F, Katiyar SK. Polyphenols: skin photoprotection and inhibition of photocarcinogenesis. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2011 Dec;11(14):1200-15.
  4. Bhullar KS, Rupasinghe HP. Polyphenols: multipotent therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:891748. doi: 10.1155/2013/891748.
  5. Babu PV, Liu D, Gilbert ER. Recent advances in understanding the anti-diabetic actions of dietary flavonoids. J Nutr Biochem. 2013 Sep 9. pii: S0955-2863(13)00127-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.06.003.
  6. Moon YJ, Wang X, Morris ME. Dietary flavonoids: effects on xenobiotic and carcinogen metabolism. Toxicology in Vitro. 2006 March;20(2):187-201.
  7. Lautraite S, Musonda AC, Doehmer J, Edwards GO, Chipman JK. Flavonoids inhibit genetic toxicity produced by carcinogens in cells expressing CYP1A2 and CYP1A1. Mutagenesis. 2002 January;17(1):45-53.
  8. Wang ZJ, Ohnaka K, Morita M, Toyomura K, Kono S, Ueki T, Tanaka M, Kakeji Y, Maehara Y, Okamura T, Ikejiri K, Futami K, Maekawa T, Yasunami Y, Takenaka K, Ichimiya H, Terasaka R. Dietary polyphenols and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka colorectal cancer study. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 May 7;19(17):2683-90. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i17.2683.
  9. Huang WY, Davidge ST, Wu J. Bioactive natural constituents from food sources-potential use in hypertension prevention and treatment. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53(6):615-30. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2010.550071.
  10. Arranz S, Valderas-Martinez P, Chiva-Blanch G, Casas R, Urpi-Sarda M, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Estruch R. Cardioprotective effects of cocoa: clinical evidence from randomized clinical intervention trials in humans. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 Jun;57(6):936-47. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201200595.

Pycnogenol (Pine Bark)

  1. Rohdewald, P (2002). "A review of the French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology". International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 40 (4): 158–68. doi:10.5414/cpp40158. PMID 11996210
  2. Nishioka, Kenji; Hidaka, Takayuki; Nakamura, Shuji; Umemura, Takashi; Jitsuiki, Daisuke; Soga, Junko; Goto, Chikara; Chayama, Kazuaki; Yoshizumi, Masao (2007). "Pycnogenol, French Maritime Pine Bark Extract, Augments Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation in Humans". Hypertension Research 30 (9): 775–80. doi:10.1291/hypres.30.775. PMID 18037769
  3. Liu, Ximing; Zhou, Ha-Jun; Rohdewald, Peter (2004). "French Maritime Pine Bark Extract Pycnogenol Dose-Dependently Lowers Glucose in Type 2 Diabetic Patients". Diabetes Care 27 (3): 839. doi:10.2337/diacare.27.3.839
  4. Schäfer, Angelika; Högger, Petra (2007). "Oligomeric procyanidins of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) effectively inhibit α-glucosidase". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 77 (1): 41–6. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2006.10.011. PMID 17098323
  5. Stanislavov R1, Nikolova V., J Sex Marital Ther. 2003 May-Jun;29(3):207-13. Treatment of erectile dysfunction with pycnogenol and L-arginine. Daily oral administration of L-arginine (1.7 g) in combination with Pycnogenol (120 mg) causes a 92.5% improvement in sexual function in men with ED without any side effects.
  6. “Aoki, H., Nagao, J., et al.; “Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol and L-Arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction”; ePub May 27, 2011; Phytother Res. 20912, Feb; 26(2): 204-7”

  7. “Stanislavov, R., et al, ” Treatment of erectile dysfunction with pycnogenol and L -arginine “, J Sex Marital Ther 2003 May-Jun, 29 (3 ), pp. 207-213”

  8. “Nishioka, Kenji , et . al, “Pycnogenol French Maritime Pine Bark Extract, Augments Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation in Humans,” Hypertension Research (2007 ) 30, pp. 775-780” 


  1. Celotti E and others. Resveratrol content of some wines obtained from dried Valpolicella grapes: Recioto and Amarone. Journal of Chromatography A 730(1-2): 47-52, 1996.
  2. Soleas GJ, Diamandis EP, Goldberg DM. Resveratrol: A molecule whose time has come? And gone? Clinical Biochemistry 30:91-113, 1997.
  3. Kopp P. Resveratrol, a phytoestrogen found in red wine. A possible explanation for the conundrum of the 'French paradox'? European Journal of Endocrinology 138:619-620, 1998.
  4. Jang M and others. Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes. Science 275:218-220, 1997.
  5. Gehm H and others. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound found in grapes and wine, is an agonist for the estrogen receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 94:557-562, 1997.
  6. Tomé-Carneiro J. and others. Resveratrol in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a dietary and clinical perspective. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1290:37-51, 201 .
  7. Chanvitayapongs S, Draczynska-Lusiak B, Sun AY. Amelioration of oxidative stress by antioxidants and resveratrol in PC12 cells. Neuroreport 8:1499-1502, 1997.
  8. Belguendouz L, Fremont L, Gozzelino MT. Interaction of transresveratrol with plasma lipoproteins. Biochemical Pharmacology 55:811-816, 1998.
  9. Rotondo S and others. Effect of trans-resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function. British Journal of Pharmacology 123:1691-1699, 1998.
  10. Frankel EN, Waterhouse AL, Kinsella JE. Inhibition of human LDL oxidation by resveratrol. Lancet 341:1103-1104, 1993.
  11. Wong RHX and others. Evidence for circulatory benefits of resveratrol in humans. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1290:52-58, 2013.
  12. Bishayee A. Cancer prevention and treatment with resveratrol: from rodent studies to clinical trials. Cancer Prevention Research 2:409-418, 2009.
  13. Ogas T and others. Resveratrol analogs: promising chemopreventive agents. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1290:21-29, 2013
  14. Baur JA and others. Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet. Nature 444:337-342, 2006.
  15. Pearson KJ and others. Resveratrol delays age-related deterioration and mimics transcriptional aspects of dietary restriction without extending life span. Cell Metabolism 8:157-168, 2008.
  16. Barger JL and others. A low dose of dietary resveratrol partially mimics caloric restriction and retards aging parameters in mice. PLoS One 3:e2264, 2008.
  17. Resveratrol. The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics, 51:74-75, 2009.
  18. Wade N. Substance in red wine extends life of mice. New York Times, Nov 1, 2006.
  19. Edes A. GlaxoSmithKline to close Sirtris unit in Cambridge. Boston Globe, March 13, 2013.
  20. Scientific journals notified following research misconduct investigation. UConn Today, Jan 12, 2012.
  21. Oransky I. Late resveratrol researcher Dipak Das up to 20 retractions. Retraction Watch Web site, April 3, 2014.
  22. Vang O and others. What is new for an old molecule? Systematic review and recommendations on the use of resveratrol. PloS One 6(6): e19881. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019881, 2011.
  23. Vang O. and others. What is new for resveratrol? Is a new set of recommendations necessary? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1290:1-11, 2013.

Saturated Fats/Coconut Oil

  1. Effects of sunflower oil and coconut oil on protein and fat retention, fatty acid pattern of back fat and blood parameters in piglets. Fat content in the coconut oil fed animals, after only 34 days, was 15.9%, in the control group, 18.6%. Arch. Tieremahr (East Germany) 34(l), 19-33, 1984. [and in the sunflower oil fed animals. 21:1%.]. F. Berschauer et al.
  2. Effect of fish oil and coconut oil on antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation in rat liver. The rate of lipid peroxidation in isolated microsomes was three-fold higher in rats fed fish oil as compared to rats with coconut oil diet. These results suggest that fish oil feeding at an amount compatible with human diet, although decreasing plasma lipids, actually challenges the antioxidant defense system, thus increasing the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage. Free Radical Res. Commun. (Switzerland) 12-13 (1), 147-152, 1991. M. D'Aquino et al.

Splenda and Other Artificial Sweeteners

  1. ^ Merck Index, 11th Edition, 8854.
  2. ^ Anonymous. Scifinder – Substance Detail for 56038-13-2, October 30, 2010.
  3. a b "All About Sucralose". Calorie Control Council.
  4. a b c d Michael A. Friedman, Lead Deputy Commissioner for the FDA, Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Sucralose Federal Register: 21 CFR Part 172, Docket No. 87F-0086, April 3, 1998
  5. ^ A Report on Sucralose from the Food Sanitation Council, The Japan Food Chemical Research Foundation
  6. ^ Gratzer, Walter (28 November 2002). "5. Light on sweetness: the discovery of aspartame". Eurekas and Euphorias: The Oxford Book of Scientific Anecdotes. Oxford University Press. pp. 32–. ISBN 978-0-19-280403-7. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  7. ^ "Tate & Lyle loses sucralose patent case".
  8. ^ "Strong Clinical Database that Supports Safety of Splenda Sweetener Products". McNeil Nutritionals, LLC. Retrieved 2009-12-30.[dead link]
  9. ^ Turner, James (April 3, 2006). "FDA amends regulations that include sucralose as a non-nutritive sweetener in food.". FDA Consumer. Retrieved September 7, 2007.
  10. ^ Tate & Lyle Sucralose Production Facility Jurong Island, Singapore
  11. ^ U.S. Patent 5,498,709
  12. ^ Food and Drug Administration (2006). "Food labeling: health claims; dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.". Federal Register 71 (60): 15559–15564. PMID 16572525.
  13. ^ Grotz, VL; Henry, RR; McGill, JB; Prince, MJ; Shamoon, H; Trout, JR; Pi-Sunyer, FX (2003). "Lack of effect of sucralose on glucose homeostasis in subjects with type 2 diabetes". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103 (12): 1607–12.doi:10.1016/j.jada.2003.09.021. PMID 14647086.
  14. ^ FAP 7A3987, August 16, 1996. pp. 1–357. A 12-week study of the effect of sucralose on glucose homeostasis and HbA1c in normal healthy volunteers, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. FDA
  15. ^ Facts About Sucralose, American Dietetic Association, 2006.[dead link]
  16. ^ Ford, HE; Peters, V, Martin, NM, Sleeth, ML, Ghatei, MA, Frost, GS, Bloom, SR (2011 Apr). "Effects of oral ingestion of sucralose on gut hormone response and appetite in healthy normal-weight subjects". European journal of clinical nutrition 65 (4): 508–13.doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.291. PMID 21245879.
  17. ^ Bannach, Gilbert; Rafael R. Almeida, Luis. G. Lacerda, Egon Schnitzler, Massao Ionashiro (2009 Dec). "Thermal stability and thermal decomposition of sucralose".Eclética Química 34 (4): 21–26. doi:10.1590/S0100-46702009000400002.
  18. ^ Sweetzfree is a clear liquid syrup base, highly concentrated, and made from 100% pure sucralose in a purified water concentrate.
  19. ^ Filipic, Martha Chow Line: Sucralose sweet for calorie-counters (for 10/3/04) Ohio State Human Nutrition article on sucralose
  20. ^ "CFR – Code of Federal Regulations Title 21". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2011-04-01. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  21. ^ "Comparison and Safety Ratings of Food Additives". Center for Science in the Public Interest.
  22. ^ "Nutrition Action Health Letter" (PDF). Center for Science in the Public Interest. 2008-05.
  23. ^ "Which additives are safe? Which aren't?". Center for Science in the Public Interest.
  24. ^ "Canadian Diabetes Association 2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Diabetes (Canadian Diabetes Association) 32 (Supplement 1): S41. Semptember 2008.
  25. ^ Goldsmith LA (2000). "Acute and subchronic toxicity of sucralose". Food Chem Toxicol38 Suppl 2: S53–69. PMID 10882818.
  26. ^ "Sucralose". FDA Final Rule. United States: Food and Drug Administration.[dead link]
  27. ^ Frank, Genevieve. "Sucralose: An Overview". Penn State University.
  28. ^ "Toxicity of sucralose in humans: a review". Int. J. Morphol. 27 (1): 239–244. 2009.
  29. ^ Grotz VL, Munro IC (2009). "An overview of the safety of sucralose". Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 55 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2009.05.011. PMID 19464334.
  30. ^ Grice HC, Goldsmith LA (2000). "Sucralose--an overview of the toxicity data". Food Chem Toxicol 38 (Suppl 2): S1–6. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(00)00023-5.PMID 10882813.
  31. a b Baird, I. M., Shephard, N. W., Merritt, R. J., & Hildick-Smith, G. (2000). "Repeated dose study of sucralose tolerance in human subjects". Food Chemical Toxicology 38 (Supplement 2): S123–S129.. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(00)00035-1. PMID 10882825.
  32. ^ Labare, Michael P; Alexander, Martin (1993). "Biodegradation of sucralose in samples of natural environments". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12 (5): 797–804.doi:10.1897/1552-8618(1993)12[797:BOSACC]2.0.CO;2.
  33. ^ Measurements of Sucralose in the Swedish Screening Program 2007, Part I; Sucralose in surface waters and STP samples[dead link]
  34. ^ Sötningsmedel sprids till miljön - Naturvårdsverket[dead link]
  35. ^ Browning, Lynnley (2008-09-02). "New Salvo in Splenda Skirmish". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
  36. ^ Abou-Donia, MB; El-Masry, EM; Abdel-Rahman, AA; McLendon, RE; Schiffman, SS (2008). "Splenda alters gut microflora and increases intestinal p-glycoprotein and cytochrome p-450 in male rats". J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A 71 (21): 1415–29.doi:10.1080/15287390802328630. PMID 18800291.
  37. ^ Daniells, Stephen (2009-09-02). "Sucralose safety 'scientifically sound': Expert panel".
  38. Splenda References:

More References for "Artificial Sweeteners":

  1. ^ "FDA's response to European Aspartame Study".
  2. ^ C (2010). "Unique Sweetener Supports Oral health".
  3. ^ Coultate, T. (2009). Food: The chemistry of its components. Cambridge, UK: The Royal Society of chemistry
  4. a b Jang, H. -J.; Kokrashvili, Z.; Theodorakis, M. J.; Carlson, O. D.; Kim, B. -J.; Zhou, J.; Kim, H. H.; Xu, X. et al. (2007). "Gut-expressed gustducin and taste receptors regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences104 (38): 15069–15074. Bibcode 2007PNAS..10415069J. doi:10.1073/pnas.0706890104.PMID 17724330. edit
  5. ^ Ma, J.; Bellon, M.; Wishart, J. M.; Young, R.; Blackshaw, L. A.; Jones, K. L.; Horowitz, M.; Rayner, C. K. (2009). "Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on gastric emptying and incretin hormone release in healthy subjects". AJP: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 296 (4): G735–G739. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.90708.2008. edit
  6. ^ Swithers SE, Davidson TL (2008). "A role for sweet taste: calorie predictive relations in energy regulation by rats". Behav Neurosci 122 (1): 161–73. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.122.1.161. PMID 18298259.
  7. ^ DeNoon, Daniel J. Reviewed by Charlotte Grayson Mathis MD. "Drink More Diet Soda, Gain More Weight? Overweight Risk Soars 41% With Each Daily Can of Diet Soft Drink", WebMD Medical News (2005), accessed 2007-06-25
  8. ^ Sugar demand rising at expense of sweeteners, claims sugar industry
  9. ^ Sucralose breakthrough could smash Tate & Lyle monopoly
  10. ^ Mattes, R.D. & Popkin, B.M. (January 2009). "Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89(1) 1-14. Accessed 2010-11-20doi:10.39451ajcn.2008.26792
  11. ^ Mela, D. (ed.). (2005). Food, diet and obesity. Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publishing Limited.
  12. ^ Coultate, T. (2009). Food: The chemistry of its components. Cambridge, UK: The Royal Society of Chemistry.
  13. a b EFSA National Experts (May 2010). "Report of the meetings on aspartame with national experts". EFSA. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
  14. ^ Mitchell, Helen (2006). Sweeteners and sugar alternatives in food technology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 94. ISBN 1-4051-3434-8
  15. a b Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Doull J, et al. (2007). "Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies".Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 37 (8): 629–727. doi:10.1080/10408440701516184. PMID 17828671.
  16. ^ Food Standards Australia New Zealand: "Food Standards Australia New Zealand: Aspartame – what it is and why it's used in our food". Retrieved 2008-12-09.[dead link]
  17. a b Butchko HH, Stargel WW, Comer CP, et al. (April 2002). "Aspartame: review of safety". Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 35 (2 Pt 2): S1–93. doi:10.1006/rtph.2002.1542.PMID 12180494.
  18. ^ "Aspartame". UK FSA. 17 June 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
  19. ^ "Aspartame". EFSA. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
  20. ^ "Aspartame". Health Canada. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
  21. ^
  22. ^ Sweet on Stevia: Sugar Substitute Gains Fans, Columbia Daily Tribune, 23 March 2008
  23. ^ New Artificial Sweetener
  24. ^ Newmarker, Chris (18 December 2008). "Federal regulators give OK for Cargill's Truvia sweetener". Minneapolis / St. Paul Business Journal. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
  25. a b Daniel JW, Renwick AG, Roberts A, Sims J (2000). "The metabolic fate of sucralose in rats". Food Chem Tox 38 (S2): S115–S121. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(00)00034-X.
  26. ^ FDA approves new high-intensity sweetener sucralose
  27. a b Bitter Battle over Truth in Sweeteners
  28. ^ Truth About Splenda, Sugar Association website
  29. ^ Grotz, VL; Munro, IC (2009). "An overview of the safety of sucralose". Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP 55 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2009.05.011.PMID 19464334.
  30. ^ Lyn O'Brien-Nabors (2011). Alternative Sweeteners. CRC Press. pp. 226–227. ISBN 978-1-4398-4614-8.
  31. a b Rachel Wilson (July 26, 2011), New and Emerging Opportunities for Plant-Derived Sweeteners, Natural Products Insider
  32. ^ Chinese monk fruit latest all-natural sweetener to make waves, The Independent, 12 April 2011
  33. a b c Christopher Adams (Aug 28, 2012), US launch sweet news for kiwi supplier, The New Zealand Herald
  34. "Food and Chemical Toxicology"; Repeated dose study of sucralose tolerance in human subjects; I.M. Baird, et al.; 2000
  35. "Food and Chemical Toxicology"; The Absence of Genotoxicity of Sucralose; D. Brusick, et al.; November 2010
  36. "Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology"; Expert panel report on a study of Splenda in male rats: D. Brusick, et al.; October 2009
  37. "The Journal of Clinical Dentistry"; Dental considerations in sucralose use; I.D. Mandel & V.Z. Grotz; 2002
  38. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses Journal: The Potential Toxicity of Artificial Sweeteners
  39. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health: Splenda Alters Gut Microflora and Increases Intestinal P-Glycoprotein and Cytochrome P-450 in Male Rats
  40. Gene: CYP3A4 Cytochrome P450, Family 3, Subfamily A, Polypeptide 4 (Homo Sapiens)
  41. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine: Preliminary Study on Intestinal Flora in Diarrhea Type Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Pi-wei Dampness-heat Syndrome
  42. Preventive Medicine: Manipulation of Fecal pH by Dietary Means
  43. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet: Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer

  44. Women to Women; Sugar Substitutes and the Potential Danger of Splenda, 14 November 2005
  45. Women's Health & Weight Loss Magazine; The Truth About Splenda; Lynn Baer
  46.; Sucralose; Richard Deandrea, MD, ND
  47. Women to Women: Sugar Substitutes and the Potential Danger of Splenda; Marcelle Pick, OB/GYN, NP
  48.; The Potential Dangers of Sucralose; Dr. Betty Martini
  49. "Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health"; Splenda Alters Gut Microflora; Abou-Doria MB, et al; 2008
  50. Artificial substances may pose health risks. A major health concern regarding the intake of artificial substances is the risk of cancer. Sucralose also yielded negative results when tested clinically for E. coli and salmonella.
  51. According to an article in "The Journal of Clinical Dentistry" published in 2002, sucralose- based sweeteners, such as Splenda, contain bulking ingredients that give them the potential to cause tooth decay.
  52. The list of reported side effects from Splenda is long and varied, according to an article by Dr. Betty Martini on Side effects include skin irritation, itching and swelling, bloating, diarrhea, headache, tremors, nausea, abdominal pain, depression, forgetfulness, mood swings and severe anxiety. Writing on the Women to Women website, OB/GYN Marcelle Pick cites an article from the 1991 issue of "New Scientist," which reported on a short-term study by the manufacturer about rats that consumed large amounts of sucralose. The study by toxicologist Judith Bellin found that the sugar substitute caused shrunken thymus glands, enlarged livers and kidney disorders in rodents.

Warning to Diabetics! Just because Splenda and other artificial sweeteners may keep your blood sugar from spiking doesn't mean that these chemicals are good for you! Arsenic won't spike your blood sugar either, so is arsenic good for you?

Dr. Janet Hull Writes Book about Splenda 
Dr. Janet Hull has written a book about the dangers of Splenda, revealing the scientific evidence strongly suggesting the chemical sweetener sucralose may harm your body. 

There is no free ticket to eating all the sugar-free products you desire without paying the high price of harming your body in the long run.  The “technology of foods” (artificial sweeteners and man-made foods) has gone too far, and will not secure eternal health, beauty, slimness, or youth.  Laboratory sugar-free chemicals are not your answer.

The same patterns with aspartame (NutraSweet/Equal) are repeating with sucralose (Splenda). Their claims of product safety and research results are identical to those used by The NutraSweet Company.

Turmeric (Curcumin)

  1. Abbey M, Noakes M, Belling GB, Nestel PJ. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 1994 May;59(5):995-9. 1994. PMID:16240.
  2. Aggarwal B. Paper presented at the U.S. Defense Department's 'Era of Hope' Breast Cancer Research Program meeting in Philadelphia, PA, October 5, 2005,. reported in "Turmeric slows breast cancer spread in mice.". 0.
  3. Ahsan H, Parveen N, Khan NU, Hadi SM. Pro-oxidant, anti-oxidant and cleavage activities on DNA of curcumin and its derivatives demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Chem Biol Interact 1999 Jul 1;121(2):161-75. 1999. PMID:7690.
  4. Arbiser JL, Klauber N, Rohan R, et al. Curcumin is an in vivo inhibitor of angiogenesis. Mol Med 1998 Jun;4(6):376-83. 1998. PMID:7540.
  5. Asai A, Nakagawa K, Miyazawa T. Antioxidative effects of turmeric, rosemary and capsicum extracts on membrane phospholipid peroxidation and liver lipid metabolism in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1999 Dec;63(12):2118-22. 1999. PMID:7550.
  6. Balasubramanian K. Molecular Orbital Basis for Yellow Curry Spice Curcumin's Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54 (10), 3512 -3520, 2006. 10.1021/jf0603533 S0021-8561(06)00353-0, Web Release Date: April 20, 2006. 2006.
  7. Calabrese V, Butterfield DA, Stella AM. Nutritional antioxidants and the heme oxygenase pathway of stress tolerance: novel targets for neuroprotection in Alzheimer's disease. Ital J Biochem. 2003 Dec;52(4):177-81. 2003.
  8. Calabrese V, et. al. Paper on curcumin's induction of hemeoxygenase-1. Presented at the annual conference of the American Physiological Society, held April 17-21, 2004, Washington, D.C. 2004.
  9. Cruz-Correa M, Shoskes DA, Sanchez P, Zhao R, Hylind LM, Wexner SD, Giardiello FM. Combination treatment with curcumin and quercetin of adenomas in familial adenomatous polyposis. i>Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Aug;4(8):1035-8. Epub 2006 Jun 6. 2006. PMID:16757216.
  10. Deshpande UR, Gadre SG, Raste AS, et al. Protective effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1998 Jun;36(6):573-7. 1998. PMID:7740.
  11. Dorai T, Cao YC, Dorai B, et al. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in human prostate cancer. III. Curcumin inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis, and inhibits angiogenesis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in vivo. Prostate 2001 Jun 1;47(4):293-303. 2001. PMID:16280.
  12. Egan ME, Pearson M, Weiner SA, Rajendran V, Rubin D, Glockner-Pagel J, Canny S, Du K, Lukacs GL, Caplan MJ. Curcumin, a major constituent of turmeric, corrects cystic fibrosis defects. Science. 2004 Apr 23;304(5670):600-2. 2004. PMID:15105504.
  13. Ensminger AH, Esminger M. K. J. e. al. Food for Health: A Nutrition Encyclopedia. Clovis, California: Pegus Press; 1986. 1986. PMID:15210.
  14. Fiala M, Lin J, Ringman J, Kermani-Arab V, Tsao G, Patel A, Lossinsky AS, Graves MC, Gustavson A, Sayre J, Sofroni E, Suarez T, Chiappelli F, Bernard G. Ineffective phagocytosis of amyloid-beta by macrophages of Alzheimer's disease patients. J Alzheimers Dis. 2005 Jun;7(3):221-32; discussion 255-62. 2005. PMID:16006665.
  15. Fiala M, Liu PT, Espinosa-Jeffrey A, Rosenthal MJ, Bernard G, Ringman JM, Sayre J, Zhang L, Zaghi J, Dejbakhsh S, Chiang B, Hui J, Mahanian M, Baghaee A, Hong P, Cashman J. Innate immunity and transcription of MGAT-III and Toll-like receptors in Alzheimer's disease patients are improved by bisdemethoxycurcumin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 31;104(31):12849-54. 2007. PMID:17652175.
  16. Fortin, Francois, Editorial Director. The Visual Foods Encyclopedia. Macmillan, New York. 1996.
  17. Grieve M. A Modern Herbal. Dover Publications, New York. 1971.
  18. Gururaj A, Kelakavadi M, Venkatesh D et al. Molecular mechanisms of anti-angiogenic effect of curcumin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002 Oct 4;297(4):934. 2002.
  19. Hidaka H, Ishiko T, Furunashi T et al. Curcumin inhibits interleukin 8 production and enhances interleukin 8 receptor expression on the cell surface:impacgt on human pancrreatic carcinoma cell growth by autocrine regulation. Cancer 2002 Sep 15;96(6):1206-14. 2002.
  20. Kang BY, Chung SW, Chung W et al. Inhibition of interleukin-12 production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage by curcumin. Eur J Pharmacol 1999 Nov;384(2-3):191-5. 1999.
  21. Kang BY, Song YJ, Kim KM et al. Curcumin inhibits Th1 cytokine profile in CD4+ T cells by suppressing interleukin-12 production in macrophages. Br J Pharmacol 1999 Sep;128(2):380-4. 1999.
  22. Khor TO, Keum YS, Lin W, Kim JH, Hu1 R, Shen G, Xu1 C, Gopalakrishnan A, Reddy B, Zheng X, Conney AH, Kong AN. Combined Inhibitory Effects of Curcumin and Phenethyl Isothiocyanate on the Growth of Human PC-3 Prostate Xenografts in Immunodeficient Mice. Cancer Research. 2006 Jan; 66(2): 613-621. 2006. PMID:16423986.
  23. Lim GP, Chu T, Yang F, et al. The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse. J Neurosci 2001 Nov 1;21(21):8370-7. 2001. PMID:16240.
  24. Nagabhushan M, Amonkar AJ, Bhide SV. In vitro antimutagenicity of curcumin against environmental mutagens. Food Chem Toxicol. 1987 Jul;25(7):545-7. 1987. PMID:3623345.
  25. Nagabhushan M, Bhide SV. Curcumin as an inhibitor of cancer. J Am Coll Nutr. 1992 Apr;11(2):192-8. 1992. PMID:1578097.
  26. Nagabhushan M, Nair UJ, Amonkar AJ, D'Souza AV, Bhide SV. Curcumins as inhibitors of nitrosation in vitro. Mutat Res. 1988 Nov;202(1):163-9. 1988. PMID:3054526.
  27. Nagabhushan M. Research presented at the Children with Leukaemia Conference,, September 2004. 2004.
  28. Nakamura K, Yasunaga Y, Segawa T et al. Curcumin down-regulates AR gene expression and activation in prostate cancer cell lines. Int J Oncol 2002 Oct;21(4):825-30. 2002.
  29. Natarajan C, Bright JJ. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists inhibit experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by blocking IL-2 prodeuction, IL-12 signaling and Th1 differentiation. Genes Immun 2002 Apr;3(2):59-70. 2002.
  30. Olszewska M, Glowacki R, Wolbis M, Bald E. Quantitative determination of flavonoids in the flowers and leaves of Prunus spinosa L. Acta Pol Pharm 2001 May-2001 Jun 30;58(3):199-203. 2001. PMID:16270.
  31. Parfk SY, Kim DS. Discovery of natural products from Curcuma longa that protects cells from beta-amyloid insult: a drug discovery effort against Alzherimer's disease. J Nat Prod 2002 Sep;65(9):1227-31. 2002.
  32. Peschel D, Koerting R, Nass N. Curcumin induces changes in expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Feb;18(2):113-9. Epub 2006 May 18. 2007. PMID:16713233.
  33. Salh B, Assi K, Templeman V, Parhar K, Owen D, Gomez-Munoz A, Jacobson K. Curcumin attenuates DNB-induced murine colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. Jul;285(1):G235-43. Epub 2003 Mar 13. 2003. PMID:12637253.
  34. Shah BH, Nawaz Z, Pertani SA, et al. Inhibitory effect of curcumin, a food spice from turmeric, on platelet- activating factor- and arachidonic acid-mediated platelet aggregation through inhibition of thromboxane formation and Ca2+ signa. Biochem Pharmacol 1999 Oct 1;58(7):1167-72. 1999. PMID:7670.
  35. Shishodia S, Amin HM, Lai R, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) inhibits constitutive NF-kappaB activation, induces G1/S arrest, suppresses proliferation, and induces apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Sep 1;70(5):700-13. 2005. PMID:16023083.
  36. Soni KB, Kuttan R. Effect of oral curcumin administration on serum peroxides and cholesterol levels in human volunteers. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1992 Oct;36(4):273-5. 1992. PMID:1291482.
  37. Tayyem RF, Heath DD, Al-Delaimy WK, Rock CL. Curcumin content of turmeric and curry powders. Nutr Cancer. 2006;55(2):126-31. 2006. PMID:17044766.
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Vegetables & Fruits

  1. Effect of high intakes of fruit and vegetables on redox status in type 2 onset diabetes: a pilot study. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004 Sep;74(5):313-20. PMID: 15628668. Giammarioli S, Filesi C, Vitale B, Cantagallo A, Dragoni F, Sanzini E.
  2. Five to nine daily servings of vegetables and fruit lower stroke risk. Journal of the American Medical Association, 4/12/1995, pp. 1113-1117. Harvard Heart Letter, September 195.
  3. Effect of high intakes of fruit and vegetables on redox status in type 2 onset diabetes: a pilot study. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004 Sep;74(5):313-20. A high consumption of fruit and vegetables by diabetic patients not receiving pharmacological treatment, reduces oxidative stress and seems to produce an improvement in some redox status parameters. Giammarioli S, Filesi C, Vitale B, Cantagallo A, Dragoni F, Sanzini E., Istituto Superiore di Sanita, National Centre for Food Quality and Risk Assessment, Rome, Italy.
  4. Brassicia vegetable & breast cancer risk. JAMA, 2001. Terry P, Wolk A, Magnusson C.
  5. Broccoli sprouts: An exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1997;94:10367-10372. Fahey JW, Zhang Y. Talalya P.
  6. The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables: A Scientific Overview for Health Professionals. Better Health Foundation, 2002, p16. Hyson D.
  7. The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease in women. Arch Intern Med. 2001;134:1106-1114. Joshipura KJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, et al.
  8. The role of folate, antioxidant vitamins and other constituents in fruits and vegetables in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: The epidemiological evidence. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2001;71(1):5-17. Eichholzer M, Luthy J, Gutzwiller F, Stahelin HB.
  9. Dietary folate from vegetables and citrus fruits decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations in humans in a dietary controlled trial. J Nutr. 1999:129:1135-1139.
  10. Effect of high fiber vegetable, fruit, nut dish on serum lipids, and colonic function. Metabolism, 2001;50(4):494-503. Jenkins DA, Kendall CWC, Popovich DG et al.
  11. Influence of increased fruit and vegetable intake on plasma and lipoprotein carotenoids and LDL oxidation in smokers and non-smokers. Clin Chem. 2000;46(11):1818-1829.
  12. Fruit and vegetable consumption and diabetes mellitus incidence among U.S. adults. Prev Med. 2001;32:33-39. Ford ES, Mokdad AH.
  13. Fruit and vegetable intake and population glycosylated hemoglobin levels: the EPIC-Norfolk study. Eur J Clin Nutrition. 2001;55:342-348.
  14. Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999:69:727-736. Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Honglei C, Cupples LA, Wilson P, Kiel DP.
  15. Natto and viscous vegetables in a Japanese style meal suppress postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Taniguchi A, Yamanaka-Okumura H, Nishida Y, Yamamoto H, Taketani Y, Takeda E. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(4):663-8. This practical dietary combination would ensure compliance and favorably alter the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

Vitamin B-Complex

  1. B vitamins and nerve health. Japanese researchers studied how B vitamins helped nerves repair themselves and transmit their vital information. Gen Pharmacol 1996;27(6)995-1000.
  2. B vitamins and nerve health. A German study found B vitamins enhanced nerve health. Ex Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1996;104(4):311-6.
  3. Study discovered that taking B-6 can relieve nerve pain. Adv Perit Dial 2000;16:308-12.
  4. Biotin and peripheral neuropathy. French scientists administering high doses of biotin to people suffering from severe peripheral neuropathy noted marked pain relief within a couple of months. (The researchers kept giving the people in the study supplements for two years.) These scientists concluded that biotin is crucial for keeping nerves functioning properly, and they suggested that biotin be used routinely for the prevention and management of neuropathy. Biomed Pharmacother 1990;44(10):511-4.
  5. Riboflavin and nerve pain. In the 1990s Cubans suffered an epidemic of nerve pain. When medical experts gave them riboflavin and antioxidant nutrients, their problems decreased. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1676-81S.

Vitamin C

  1. Effect of vitamin C on glycosylation of proteins, may reduce glycosylation. Diabetes 1992;41:167-73. Davie SJ, Gould BJ, Yudkin JS.
  2. Does diabetes mellitus increase the requirement for vitamin C? Vitamin C lowers sorbitol, a sugar that can accumulate and damage the eyes, nerves, and kidneys. Nutr Rev 1996;54:193-202 [review]. Will JC, Tyers T.
  3. Magnesium and ascorbic acid supplementation in diabetes mellitus, may improve glucose tolerance. Ann Nutr Metab 1995;39:217-23. Eriksson J, Kohvakka A.
  4. High-dose vitamin C supplementation increases plasma glucose. Many doctors suggest diabetics supplement with 1-3 grams per day of vitamin C. However, higher amounts could be problematic: in one person, 4.5 grams per day increased blood sugar levels. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1218 [letter]. Branch DR.
  5. Antioxidant nutrient intake, including both vitamins E and C,  and diabetic retinopathy. The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Note: Outcome of trial might reflect that sicker people are more likely to take supplements in hopes of getting better. Ophthalmology 1998;105:2264-70. Mayer-Davis E, Bell RA, Reboussin BA, et al.
  6. Vitamin C and hyperglycemia in the European Prospective Investigation in Cancer-Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) study; a population-based study. Diabetes Care 2000 Jun; 23(6): 726-32. Sargeant, L.A. et al.
  7. Effect of Vitamin C Supplementation on Blood Sugar and Antioxidative Status in Types II Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2003 Apr;33(2):170-8. Korean. PMID: 15314445. Park HS, Lee YM.

Vitamin D

  1. Vitamin D may curb type 2 diabetes risk. During a 17-year follow-up of roughly 4,000 men and women, researchers found that individuals with higher blood levels of vitamin D had a 40 percent lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those with lower levels of this vitamin. Diabetes Care, October 2007.
  2. Vitamin D and Calcium May Lower the Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in Women. Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to type 2 diabetes in women, by A.G. Pittas and colleagues. Diabetes Care 29:650–656, 2006.
  3. Vitamin D May Cut Risk of Type 1 Diabetes.  There is new evidence that children who get plenty of vitamin D, either from supplements or sun exposure, have a reduced risk of developing type 1 diabetes. WebMD Health News

Vitamin E

  1. Low vitamin E status is a potential risk factor for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med 1999;245:99–102. Knekt P, Reunanen A, Marniumi J, et al.
  2. Increased risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus at low plasma vitamin E concentrations: a four year follow up study in men. BMJ 1995;311:1124–7. Salonen JT, Nyssonen K, Tuomainen T-P, et al.
  3. Vitamin E: more than an antioxidant. 1993; Clin Cardiol 16(4 Suppl): 116-8. Steiner, M.
  4. Effect of Vitamin E on diabetes mellitus. 1992; Taiwan I Hsueh Hui Tsa Chih 91(3): 270-5. Wu, H., T. Tai, et al.
  5. Vitamin E reduction of protein glycosylation in diabetes. New prospect for prevention of diabetic complications. 1991; Diabetes Care 14(1): 68-72. Ceriello, A., D. Giugliano, et al.
  6. Vitamin E improves insulin action in non-insulin-dependent diabetics. 1993; Am J Clin Nutr 57(5): 650-6. Paolisso, G., A. D'Amore, et al.
  7. The effect of supplemental vitamin E on serum parameters in diabetics, post coronary and normal subjects. Nutr Rep Int 1985;31:1171–80. Bierenbaum ML, Noonan FJ, Machlin LJ, et al.
  8. Pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:650–6. Paolisso G, D’Amore A, Giugliano D, et al.
  9. Reversal of defective nerve condition with vitamin E supplementation in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1915–8. Tütüncü NB, Bayraktar M, Varli K.
  10. Low vitamin E status is a potential risk factor for type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med 1999;245:99-102. Knekt P, Reunanen A, Marniumi J, et al.
  11. Increased risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus at low plasma vitamin E concentrations: a four year follow up study in men. BMJ 1995;311:1124-7. Salonen JT, Nyssonen K, Tuomainen T-P, et al.
  12. The effect of supplemental vitamin E on serum parameters in diabetics, post coronary and normal subjects, improved glucose tolerance. Nutr Rep Int 1985;31:1171-80. Bierenbaum ML, Noonan FJ, Machlin LJ, et al.
  13. Pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:650-6. Paolisso G, D’Amore A, Giugliano D, et al.
  14. Reversal of defective nerve condition with vitamin E supplementation in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1915-8. Tütüncü NB, Bayraktar M, Varli K.
  15. Reversal of defective nerve condition with vitamin E supplementation (for 6 mos.) in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1915-8. Tütüncü NB, Bayraktar M, Varli K.
  16. Vitamin E reduction of protein glycosylation in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1991;14:68-72. Ceriello A, Giugliano D, Quatraro A, et al.
  17. Vitamin E Shows Promise in Treating Diabetes 2001 Jun 5. Washington,D.C.: Hearst Newspapers. Devaraj,S.
  18. Vitamin E Helps Protect the Breasts, Prevention, April, 1977. London, Robert.

Other Medical References and Resources

  • Journal of the American Medical Association
  • New England Journal of Medicine
  • American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  • The Lancet British Medical Journal  
  • PubMed–National Library of medicine; free access to Medline.
  • USDA Nutrient Database–This interface allows simple searches on the USDA Nutrient Database.
  • NLM Clinical Trials Database–Location, design, purpose, criteria and other information on NIH clinical trials.
  • NIH Office of Dietary Supplements–The International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements (IBIDS) is a NIH web site produced by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS).  It offers a database of published, international, scientific literature on dietary supplements, including vitamins, minerals, and botanicals.
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