Author's Perspective: I loved biology when I was in school. But, now I really loved biology because it gave me a better insight into understanding diabetes pathology and how to defeat the disease at the cellular level.

It also helped me to break down the complex medical terms and describe the biology in layman's terms.

Being able to explain the biology of diabetes at the cell level in layman's terms provided the audience with a clear understanding of the biochemical and hormonal processes that fuel Type 2 diabetes.

The benefit of this insight (to you) will empower you because you will have enough of an understanding of diabetes to comprehend whether the diabetes book that you are planning to purchase will actually help you. 

You will also have enough of an understanding to ask your doctor the right questions and give you some insight into what your doctor really knows about diabetes.

This is not meant for you to go behind your doctor's back, but, to understand his/her limitations so that you don't get angry or frustrated with his recommendations for your diabetes.

In addition, this information provides insight into how diabetes is damaging your body. This information will help you better understand the changes you need to make in order to control your diabetes and achieve tighter blood glucose control, insulin utilization, and blood glucose stability.

By understanding these biological processes, you will gain a better insight into how to successfully reverse and defeat your diabetes.

As a bonus, especially for healthcare professionals, you will gain an insight into how the author used "reverse engineering" as one of his engineering methodologies to better define how to control the disease, stop the progression of the disease, and then reverse the progression of Type 2 diabetes.

In order to better understand Type 2 diabetes and how it works, it is important to understand what is going on at the cellular level -- especially if you want to understand how to defeat it.

For example, the key cells that are affected when Type 2 diabetes initially develops (due to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia) are not the pancreatic beta cells, although pancreatic beta cell dysfunction is discussed in detail as a major factor of Type 2 diabetes pathology and pathogenesis.

The key cells that are directly affected by Type 2 diabetes include the red blood cells and tissue cells of the muscle, fat, and liver. These tissue cells are designed to take glucose (sugar) out of the blood, pull it into the cells and convert it to energy (ATP) -- this is known as carbohydrate metabolism.

These cells require insulin (as a key) to trigger the glucose transports to pull in glucose from the blood. When these cells fail to respond adequately to circulating insulin, the glucose remains in the blood and these cells lose their sensitivity to insulin (a condition known as insulin resistance). This, in turn, causes blood glucose levels to rise.

The body responds to this situation (of rising blood glucose levels) by signaling the pancreas to produce more insulin, causing insulin levels in the blood to become too high. This condition is known as hyperinsulinemia.

High insulin levels increase fat storage and inhibit fat metabolism -- that is, you gain more weight and you're unable to burn or metabolize the fat, which, in turn, makes you even fatter!

The cells in the liver also become insulin resistant and respond by making too much blood glucose. Because blood glucose is not absorbed by the cells, it stays in the blood, causing blood glucose levels to rise even further. This condition is known as hyperglycemia.

High glucose levels prevent your cells from being able to convert the glucose to energy (ATP) causing poor glucose metabolism and a reduction in energy, which, in turn, leads to mental and physical fatigue. [This is why most diabetics feel tired!] 

Red blood cells are damaged due to the high glucose levels, as sugar molecules are attached (glycated) to the exterior part of the red blood cells, forming a crystalline (coarse) crust.

These coarse red blood cells cause damage as they circulate throughout your circulatory system, damaging arteries and capillaries.

This liver tries to repair this damage by producing cholesterol to be used like spackle to repair the damaged blood vessels. 

But, the excess oxidation, glycation and inflammation in combination with the extra cholesterol produced by the liver, leads to arterial plaque formation -- all triggered by an inflammatory immune response.

These coarse red blood cells cause greater damage in dense capillary areas such as the hands and feet, and fragile capillaries such as those that feed the kidneys and eyes.

As depicted in the following diagram, diabetes affects and causes damage to many different types of cells.

Types of Cells That Are Damaged from Type 2 Diabetes

And, all of this cell damage leads to several diabetic complications that eventually leads to blindness, kidney failure, amputation, heart attack and stroke.

Other health issues that may occur include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high inflammation markers, periodontal disease, and erectile dysfunction.


The following diagrams taken from the Death to Diabetes Training Program help to depict the biology, biochemistry, pathology and pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes show it develops and progresses in the body over a period of years.

Obviously, the complexity of the events that fuel Type 2 diabetes are a lot more complex than this! The original detailed molecular and cellular system state diagrams and multi-level flow charts have been simplified to capture the essence of the disease.

Macronutrient Metabolism, Insulin Resistance & Inflammation

A cell produces energy (ATP) via biological and biochemical processes such as carbohydrate/glucose metabolism, glycolysis, fat metabolism, and lipolysis.

But, if the cell is damaged or defective as depicted in the first diagram (below), then, this cell (e.g. muscle, liver, fat) is unable to produce energy (ATP) due to ineffective glucose and fat metabolism, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation.

Insulin Resistance and Inflammation

Type 2 Diabetes Pathogenesis

The following diagram shows what cells are damaged due to Type 2 diabetes, leading to various  diabetic complications.

Type 2 Diabetes Pathogenesis: Cells Impacted

Stages of Type 2 Diabetes Development

The following diagram shows the major stages of how Type 2 diabetes develops at the macro-level: from hyperglycemia to insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and prediabetes; and, finally, to full-blown diabetes. 

Type 2 Diabetes Pathogenesis (Flowchart)

Biological Cycles of Type 2 Diabetes

The following diagram shows how Type 2 diabetes is a series of vicious cycles that fuel each other, enabling the disease to develop and progress, deteriorating the body over a period of many years. 

Biological Cycles of Type 2 Diabetes

Author Sidebar: In order for me to understand diabetes at the cellular level, I had to understand the sciences of diabetes, specifically the following areas of science:

  • Pathophysiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Etiology
  • Cell Biology
  • Cell Repair & Healing
  • Nutritional Science

It is important to have at least a basic understanding of cell biology so that you will realize that there are several major biological processes that are harmful to your health.

These biological processes include:

  • Insulin Resistance
  • Cellular Inflammation
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Protein Glycation
  • Excess Toxicity

These biological processes will cause your body to continue to breakdown and eventually develop one or more of the major diabetic complications, such as:

  • Retinopathy
  • Nephropathy
  • Neuropathy
  • Heart disease

Hopefully, by understanding biology, this will prevent you from living in denial thinking that this is not going to happen to you or hoping that you will not experience one or more of these diabetic complications.

And, hopefully, you will also realize that, by understanding biology and realizing that you can actually do something about it, you will take action to fight your diabetes and improve your health.

Of course, there is no need for you to understand biology or any of these diagrams at the level that the author understands them! -- just well enough to understand what can happen and what you can do about it.

So, if you're ready, you can do something about it. All you have to do is follow the step-by-step procedures in the ex-diabetic engineer's Death to Diabetes book.

And, for those of you who are healthcare professionals, these diagrams can be helpful by giving you a better understanding to help you with treating your diabetic clients.

If you want us to help improve your credibility and expertise with your clients, you may want to get the author's Science of Diabetes ebook, PowerPoint Slides package or one of the Health Coaching & Training Program Kits.

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 Disclaimer: This site does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Copyright © 2016. Death to Diabetes, LLC. All rights reserved.