Author's Perspective: Most people with diabetes start out taking oral medications (pills) such as metformin (Glucophage) when they are initially diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. But, in my case, I was put on insulin immediately (in the hospital) because my diabetes was so bad.

Because I had to inject myself with insulin 4 times a day (and, because I was afraid of needles), I never became comfortable with my insulin shots. Ironically, if I had started out taking a pill like most diabetics, I would have become comfortable taking the pills and I would not have been as motivated to want to get off the medication.

In fact, I was so afraid of needles, that I considered getting an insulin pump so that I could avoid the insulin shots. Luckily, for me, my family doctor rejected the idea of me going on an insulin pump.

Initially, I didn't see the advantage of taking insulin shots, but, it turned out that it was easier to gradually wean off the insulin because I was able to reduce my dosage one unit at a time from 60 units to 59 units to 58 units and so on. This would have been impossible to do with pills.

So, in many ways, being on insulin, actually turned out to be advantageous to me because I was able to slowly reduce the dosage and safely wean off the insulin in 3.5 months.

There are two major types of diabetes medications:

  1. Oral pills
  2. Injectables

Oral Diabetes Medications

Oral pills are the initial and primary type of diabetes medication given to people with Type 2 diabetes.

These types of medications help to artificially lower and control blood sugar levels in people whose bodies still produce some insulin (which are the majority of people with Type 2 diabetes).

Oral diabetes medications work in one of four ways:

  1. Stimulate the pancreas to release more insulin (causing you to gain weight)
  2. Stop the liver from releasing stored glycogen into the bloodstream as glucose (putting a strain on the liver)
  3. Increase the body's sensitivity to the insulin that is already present (but causes damage to the liver/kidneys)
  4. Slow the breakdown of foods (especially starches) into glucose (but doesn't really work that well).

Key Point: But, these medications do absolutely nothing to stop the progression of the diabetes! 100% of all diabetics who continue to take oral pills eventually end up on insulin. That's right -- 100%.

According to a panel of doctors, metformin is insurance for people who aren't following their diet and exercise plan. The message to insulin-resistant America from their doctors: "We don't think you're going to help yourself, so here, take this pill."

There are several major categories of diabetes oral medications:

  • Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors
  • Biguanides
  • Dopamine Agonist
  • DPP-4 Inhibitors
  • Glucagon-Like Peptides
  • Meglitinides
  • SGLT2 Inhibitors
  • Thiazolidinediones

Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors
These medications help lower blood glucose by assisting the body with breaking down starchy foods and table sugar. For the best results, they’re taken before meals. Options include:

    acarbose (Precose)
    miglitol (Glyset)

Biguanides decrease glucose production in the liver. They decrease intestinal glucose absorption and increase insulin sensitivity. They also help muscles absorb glucose.

The most common biguanide is metformin (Glucophage, Metformin Hydrochloride ER, Glumetza, Riomet, Fortamet).

Metformin can also be combined into a single medication with other type 2 medication types, e.g. metformin-glyburide (Glucovance), metformin-rosiglitazone (Avandamet), metformin-sitagliptin (Janumet).

Metformin puts a "biochemical clamp" on the liver, preventing the liver from releasing glycogen into your bloodstream as glucose. As a result, your blood sugar is kept from rising, but, the diabetes is still progressing (undetected) at the cellular level. 

This may not seem that important, but, this puts undue stress on your liver, which is already overtaxed from trying to fight your diabetes. After several years, most diabetics either have to increase their metformin dosage or their doctor prescribes an additional medication to go along with the metformin.

Eventually, the oral pills lose their effectiveness as the diabetes has continued to progress undetected at the cellular level. Consequently, after an additional 3 to 7 years, most diabetics have to go on insulin because the oral pills aren't strong enough to keep your blood sugar from rising.

FYI: This is not unique with metformin. Although it's different (biologically) for different drugs, this is what happens with all oral medications in one way or another. Eventually, the diabetic ends up on insulin.

Note: If your doctor did not tell you about this, read our web page about What Your Doctor May Not Be Telling You. It may save your life.

Dopamine Agonist
Action in diabetes is unknown, but bromocriptine (Parlodel) may affect circadian rhythms and affect obesity and insulin resistance.

DPP-4 Inhibitors
DPP-4 inhibitors help the body preserve insulin production. They work by reducing blood glucose without causing hypoglycemia. These can also help the pancreas make more insulin. Options include:

    alogliptin (Nesina)
    alogliptin and pioglitazone (Oseni)
    linagliptin (Tradjenta)
    saxagliptin (Onglyza)
    sitagliptin (Januvia)
    sitagliptin and simvastatin

Glucagon-Like Peptides
These are similar to the natural hormone incretin. They increase insulin secretion and decrease glucagon secretion. They also increase B-cell growth, slow stomach emptying, and reduce appetite. Options include:

    albiglutide (Tanzeum)
    dulaglutide (Trulicity)
    exenatide (Byetta)
    liraglutide (Victoza)

These medications stimulate insulin release. Unlike DPP-4 inhibitors, however, meglitinides may lower blood sugar. They are taken three times a day before meals.

Options include: 

   nateglinide (Starlix)
   repaglinide (Prandin)

SGLT2 Inhibitors
Sodium glucose transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors work by preventing the kidneys from holding onto glucose. Instead, SGLT2 promotes excretion through the urine. Options include:

    dapagliflozin (Farxiga)
    canagliflozin (Invokana)
    empagliflozin (Jardiance)  

These are among the oldest diabetes medications still used today. They work by stimulating the pancreas with the help of beta cells. In turn, more insulin is produced. Sulfonylureas come in the form of:

    glimepiride (Amaryl)
    glimepiride and pioglitazone (Duetact)
    glimeperide and rosiglitazone (Avandaryl)
    glipizide (Glucotrol)
    glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase, Micronase)
    chlorpropamide (Diabinese)
    tolazamide (Tolinase)
    tolbutamide (Orinase, Tol-Tab)

Glipizide behaves "like insulin" in that it triggers the pancreas to produce more insulin. By producing more insulin, this forces the cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream, causing your blood sugar to go down.

By forcing the pancreas to produce more insulin, your blood sugar is kept from rising, but, the diabetes is still progressing (undetected) at the cellular level. 

Unfortunately, this causes the pancreas to work even harder. In fact, as a Type 2 diabetic, your pancreas is already producing 2 to 4 times the amount of insulin in your body! When you add a drug like glipizide (Glucotrol), it tells the pancreas to produce even more insulin!

Eventually, the pancreas begins to weaken as its beta cells can't keep up the demand of producing more and more insulin.  After several years, most diabetics either have to increase their glipizide dosage or their doctor prescribes an additional medication to go along with the glipizide.

Over a period of years, the pancreas weakens even more as the diabetes has continued to progress undetected at the cellular level. Consequently, after an additional 3 to 7 years, most diabetics have to go on insulin because the oral pills aren't strong enough to keep your blood sugar from rising.

FYI: This is not unique with glipizide. Although it's different (biologically) for different drugs, this is what happens with all oral medications in one way or another. Eventually, the diabetic ends up on insulin.

Note: If your doctor did not tell you about this, read our web page about What Your Doctor May Not Be Telling You. It may save your life.

These medications work by decreasing glucose in the liver, while also promoting insulin efficacy in fat cells. Doctors prescribe them with caution because of an increased risk for heart disease. Options include:

   rosiglitazone (Avandia)
   pioglitazone (Actos)

The latter is also associated with increased risk of bladder cancer.

General side effects of most of these diabetes medications include the following:

  • Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
  • Upset stomach, Nausea
  • Skin rash or itching
  • Weight gain

Initially, most people experience nausea or upset stomach. If it doesn't subside, your doctor will prescribe a different medication.
In addition, some of these medications may have more serious side effects including:

  • Elevated liver enzymes (liver damage)
  • Liver failure
  • Respiratory infections and sinusitis
  • Headache
  • Fluid retention (This may lead to heart failure)
  • Mild anemia
  • Increased risk for upper arm or foot fractures (women)

As a result, some of these medications have been taken off the market, e.g Avandia, Actos.

Recent studies have been done showing that some diabetes pills may fuel the diabetes and its complications.

Metformin and other similar medications have been shown to increase a person's risk of developing type 2 diabetic complications, particularly when lifestyle changes of a proper diet and regular exercise are not implemented.

Actos has been shown to increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, and premature death in those with type 2 diabetes.

The primary types of injectable medications are:

  • Insulin
  • GLP-1 Receptor Agonists
  • Amylin Analogue


Insulin is produced by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. When glucose enters our blood, the pancreas should automatically produce the right amount of insulin to move glucose into our cells.

People with type 1 diabetes produce no insulin. People with type 2 diabetes do not properly utilize the insulin. In fact, their pancreas produces too much insulin (trying to meet the demands of the high blood glucose levels).

Types of Insulin
The following is a list of some of the more common insulin preparations available today.
-- Rapid-acting
-- Short-acting (Regular)
-- Intermediate-acting (NPH)
-- Intermediate and short-acting mixtures
-- Long-acting

Rapid-acting Insulin
-- Humalog (lispro)
-- Eli Lilly
-- NovoLog (aspart)
-- Novo Nordisk

Short-acting (Regular) Insulin
-- Humulin R
-- Eli Lilly
-- Novolin R
-- Novo Nordisk

Intermediate-acting (NPH) Insulin
-- Humulin N, L
-- Eli Lilly
-- Novolin N, L
-- Novo Nordisk

Intermediate and short-acting mixtures Insulin
-- Humulin 50/50
-- Humulin 70/30
-- Humalog Mix 75/25
-- Humalog Mix 50/50
-- Eli Lilly
-- Novolin 70/30
-- Novolog Mix 70/30
-- Novo Nordisk

Long-acting Insulin
-- Ultralente
-- Eli Lilly
-- Lantus (glargine)
-- Aventis 

Although the pancreas is producing excess insulin in most Type 2 diabetics, doctors prescribe insulin shots to help lower your blood sugar.

But, the real problem here is not that your body needs more insulin especially since your body is producing excess insulin! The real problem is that your body (cells) are not recognizing and utilizing the existing insulin effectively -- your cells have become insulin resistant.

In other words, adding more insulin doesn't fix the real problem, which is defective cells that aren't recognizing insulin and pulling in glucose from the bloodstream.

So, while you're now injecting yourself with more insulin, the pancreas continues to produce excess amounts of insulin.

This will eventually create 5 major problems: 

  1. The pancreas and its beta cells will eventually wear out
  2. The excess insulin will produce larger and more fat cells
  3. The excess insulin will deplete the body of key nutrients
  4. The excess insulin will not stop the progression of the diabetes, leading to even more insulin and serious complications such as blindness, amputation, kidney failure and heart attack and stroke.
  5. The strain on the pancreas may weaken it and lead to digestive problems or pancreatitis

And, once the pancreatic beta cells wear out, you will be doomed to have to take insulin shots for the rest of your life! The author refers to this as the "insulin addiction trap".

Note: The insulin made by the pancreas is a hormone messenger. The insulin that is injected into a diabetic's body is a drug that behaves like a hormone messenger.

Note: If your doctor did not tell you about this, read our web page about What Your Doctor May Not Be Telling You. It may save your life.

GLP-1 Receptor Agonists

These medications stimulate insulin production while suppressing the liver’s glucose output. They may decrease appetite and promote some weight loss. They can initially cause nausea, which may get better or go away with time. They generally do not cause hypoglycemia, though if you are taking a sulfonylurea, your doctor may reduce the dose of that to reduce the risk for hypoglycemia.

    Albiglutide (Tanzeum); weekly
    Dulaglutide (Trulicity); daily
    Exenatide (Byetta); twice daily
    Exenatide Extended Release (Bydureon); weekly
    Liraglutide (Victoza); daily

Amylin Analogue

This medication slows food from moving too quickly through the stomach and helps keep after-meal glucose levels from going too high. It can suppress appetite and may cause weight loss.  It also reduces glucose production by the liver. It is taken before meals and may cause nausea, which usually reduces over time.

Insulin Pumps

Insulin pumps are small computerized devices that deliver insulin in two ways:

   -- In a steady measured and continuous dose (the "basal" insulin)
   -- As a surge ("bolus") dose, at your direction, around mealtime.

Doses are delivered through a flexible plastic tube called a catheter. With the aid of a small needle, the catheter is inserted through the skin into the fatty tissue and is taped in place.

The insulin pump can help some people achieve better control, and many people prefer this continuous system of insulin delivery over injections.

Pumps can be programmed to releases small doses of insulin continuously (basal), or a bolus dose close to mealtime to control the rise in blood glucose after a meal. This delivery system most closely mimics the body's normal release of insulin.

Ineffectiveness of Diabetes Drugs: Why Drugs Stop Working? 

Initially, diabetic drugs (pills and injectables) help to lower your blood sugar, creating a false sense of security that "everything is fine."

But, eventually, after a period of years, these drugs lose their effectiveness. As a result, your doctor has to increase the dosage and/or add an additional drug.

Then, one day, your doctor tells you that you have to go on insulin. And, you discover that insulin works even better than the pills! So, again, this creates a false sense of security that "everything is fine."

But, eventually, after a period of years, you find yourself taking more and more insulin.

Have you ever wondered why this happens? Why do the drugs lose their effectiveness? Why do the drugs stop working?

Before you were diabetic, your pancreas secreted insulin, which acts like a "key" that activates your insulin receptors ("doors) to open and allow glucose from your bloodstream to enter into your cells and be converted to energy. And, when the glucose leaves your blood stream, this lowers your blood glucose level.

But, after you became diabetic, the insulin no longer activates your insulin receptors ("doors), which are inflamed and damaged. As a result, these "doors" don't open and let in the glucose. Instead, the glucose remains in your bloodstream causing your blood glucose level to rise.

Now, when you start taking diabetic drugs (pills), they don't fix the problem with the inflamed and damaged insulin receptors ("doors). Instead, the drugs use other methods to artificially lower your blood glucose. And, in the meantime, the diabetes causes more damage to more and more cells and their insulin receptors ("doors). 

Until one day, when you (almost) run out of healthy cells and insulin receptors ("doors). Once this happens, your doctor will increase your drug dosage, but, eventually, you will run out of healthy cells and insulin receptors ("doors). And, when that happens, the drugs will not be able to consistently lower your blood glucose level. 

That is an over-simplification of what happens and why the drugs lose their effectiveness, so hopefully, you now understand why the drugs are not the long-term answer for your diabetes.

Recent studies from the New England Journal of Medicine demonstrated that most of these diabetic drugs were not helping diabetics improve their health! And, in most cases, were causing harm, e.g. kidney failure, liver failure, heart attack, stroke.

Bottom-line, these diabetic drugs do not stop the progression of your diabetes and are not powerful enough to stop your body from rotting.

As a result, eventually, you will end up with one or more diabetic complications, e.g. retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, or heart disease.

Please Note: Other drugs such as blood pressure drugs, allergy and cold medications, steroids, vaccines, and flu shots can cause your blood glucose to rise and make your diabetes worse -- so, be careful when taking other medications.

It's true that diabetes drugs lower your blood sugar, but, at a price to your long-term health; and, in some cases, to your short-term or immediate health.

Recent studies have shown that many of these drugs can cause serious side effects such as heart disease, heart attacks, cancer, liver failure, kidney failure, etc.

This would be less disturbing if the side effects of these drugs were not so catastrophic. Drugs like Januvia, Byetta and Victoza are associated with pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

Actos is associated with bladder cancer, which has an extremely high recurrence rate. Avandia is linked to severe heart problems and fatal heart attacks.

Most patients taking these drugs have no idea they can cause cancer, heart failure, and other devastating side effects. And the diabetic drug industry keeps booming, making more money than the NFL, NBA, and MLB combined.

The truth is, doctors do not know how to treat, control or cure diabetes. These drugs are designed to treat the symptoms of the disease rather than the disease itself. It’s time that we take our health into our own hands, not in the hands of our doctors and pharmacists.

To make matters worse, most diabetics are taking multiple drugs -- some as many as 6 or 7 different drugs -- that's 12 to 16 pills a day!

One of the more common drug-combo scenarios is diabetics who take a combination of drugs for diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. This "drug cocktail" is more dangerous than the dangers associated with each drug by itself!

Pharmaceutical companies do not test bother to these drugs in combinations with each other! So, they are not aware of the dangerous health impacts of a "drug cocktail"

For example, let's say you're taking one drug that has 4 major side effects. And, let's say that you're taking two other drugs that also have 4 major side effects each. So, that's 4 + 4 + 4 or 12 side effects, right? No! It's actually 4 x 4 x 4 or 64 side effects! The number of side effects are not additive, they're exponential!

And, some of those side effects either lead to or cause death or some debilitating condition that leaves you in a wheelchair, in the hospital or requiring hospice care.

Unfortunately, most of us don't expect that this is going to happen to us -- until it does ...

It should not surprise you that many dangerous drugs have slipped past the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) and found their way into the marketplace (primarily for business reasons).

In most, if not all, cases, the pharmaceutical companies are willing to take the risk, because, they make so much profits from the drug that a few lawsuits are a drop in the bucket compared to the billions of dollars of profit that are generated.

Also, keep in mind that some of the executives in the FDA come from the pharmaceutical industry (and, vice-versa). So, they work hand-in-hand for their best interests, not the public's best interest.

When the agency approves a dangerous drug, there can be a number of consequences, often times tragic. Once news of a tragedy reaches the public, pressure mounts for FDA policy to change, as happened after the Thalidomide controversy in the 1960s.

Prior to 1962, there was no mechanism in the US to approve drugs before they went to market. Although the 1906 Food and Drugs Act required drugs to be accurately and honestly labeled, that was largely the extent of the oversight.

In 1961, it was determined that Thalidomide caused horrifying birth defects. It is estimated that between 10,000 to 20,000 people were affected in what is considered to be among the worst medical disasters in history. Thalidomide prompted Congress to act, and the Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments were passed in 1962, granting oversight of drugs to the FDA and compelling manufacturers to prove that their drugs are safe for public consumption.

Some of the recent drug alerts and recalls (Actos, Avandia, Vioxx, Xarelto) drew a strong reaction from the public because of their heart attacks, cancers and deaths from these drugs. But, at this time (7/2015), none of these drugs have been officially recalled!

In some cases, what is shocking is how long the drugs were on the market before their devastating side effects were acknowledged. In others, the amount of money the drug company paid in settlements was so huge it drew public attention and ire. Still others were surprising because of the fraudulent manner in which they reached the market.

FYI: Here are some websites that keep track of drug alerts, recalls, lawsuits, etc.":


These websites provide lists of drugs that have been recalled:


Warning: Recently a clinical diabetes study was halted after researchers found an increased death rate among those taking higher doses of blood sugar-lowering diabetic medications.

The fact is that adverse effects from medications are the fourth-leading cause of death in the US (after heart disease, cancer and stroke). About 6% of patients who take two medications daily will experience a drug interaction. If you’re taking five medications a day, the risk rises to 50%.

New results from a large government-run trial confirm that very aggressive treatment to lower blood sugar is associated with an increased risk of death in people with type 2 at high risk for heart attack and stroke.

Note: For information about the dangers of drugs and their side effects, refer to the Diabetes Drugs & Doctors and Dangerous Drugs web pages.

If you're tired of relying on toxic drugs that aren't doing anything to stop the spread of your diabetes, then, we recommend that you get the ex-diabetic engineer's Death to Diabetes book today.

If you want to safely wean off your medications, refer to the Drug Weaning web page and get the author's DTD Drug Weaning ebook or flow chart.

Google Ad





Google Ad

 Disclaimer: This site does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Copyright © 2018. Death to Diabetes, LLC. All rights reserved.